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evolution

the gradual change in the characteristics of a species over time

species

a group of organisms whose members look alike and successfully reproduce among themselves

darwin

person considered to be the founder of modern evolutionary theory

on the origin of species

what established evolution by a common descent as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature

natural selection

a mechanism for changes in populations that occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce and pass on traits to the next generation

artificial selection

the breeding of certain traits over others

genetic drift

random fluctuations in the frequency of appearance of a gene in a small isolated population, presumably owing to chance rather than natural selection

gene flow

transfer of genes from one population of the same species, as by migration or the dispersal of seeds and pollen

mutation

a change in a dna sequence usually occurring because of errors in replication or repair

recombination

AKA crossing over; a process in which pairs of chromosomes swap DNA with one another.

recombination

what happens during gamete formation

biogeography

the study of how species are distributed spatially across the landscape

a common ancestor

what do species have to share in order for the distribution patterns across the globe to make sense

that modern species should be found close to where their ancestors were, regardless of environmental conditions

what does the evolutionary theory predict

plants and animals

islands should contain what that are closely related to their mainland

the fact that islands contain plants and animals that are closely related to the species on the nearest mainland

what indicates that early ancestors of species migrated, and as the environments changed, the organisms adapted to their unique island over time

the idea of continental drift

what idea lends support to biogeography as evidence for evolution

similar dna, rna, and proteins

what do all living things contain

whether or not the organisms are closely related

what can scientists determine by comparing dna sequences

the relationship between closely related species

what relationship can be used to contruct evolutionary pathways

the fewer turns you take, the more closely related organisms are

what is true of the philogenic tree/platogram

fossils

provide evidence for evolution; remains of once living things that are preserved in earth's rocks

bacteria

where are the oldest fossils found

homologous structures

have different FUNCTION but the same STRUCTURE; these similarities indicate that the organisms probably had a common evolutionary origin (limbs)

analogous structures

have body parts that are similar in FUNCTION but different in STRUCTURE. these indicate that the organisms probably had different yet related ancestors (wings)

mimicry and camouflage

what are the two changes in the structure of body parts

mimicry

enables an organism to COPY the appearance of another species

camoflage

a structural adaptation that enables an organism to BLEND in with its surroundings

they show structural changes over time

how do functionless structures such as the appendix and the eyes of cavefish support the theory of evolution

physiological changes

changes in an organism's metabolic processes

they are more physiologically resistant

how do organisms that have been exposed to antibiotic and pesticides survive in their environments

embryology

the study of the development of embryos

a common ancestor

studies of certain embryos indication evolution from what

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