9th Grade Biology Chapter 12 DNA Quiz

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9th Grade Biology Chapter 12 DNA Quiz

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

Frederick Griffith's major contribution

transformative factor in bacteria; some chemical compound in cells must be responsible for BACTERIAL TRANSFORMATION

Oswald Avery/Hersey & Chase's major contribution

DNA is transformative factor

Rosalind Franklin's major contribution

x-ray picture of DNA

James Watson & Francis Crick's major contribution

double helix

Nucleotide

monomer of DNA

Three subunits that make up a neucleotide

phosphate, deoxyribose, nitrogen base

Sugar & Phosphate

make up the SIDES of the ladder

Base

makes up th rungs of the ladder

Chargaff's base paring rule

A = T
C = G
Explained by the double helix model

Hydrogen

bond that connects nitrogen bases

What is replication

copying of DNA

When does replication occur

S phase of interphase

Steps of replication

1) Helicase unwinds and unzips
2) DNA polymerase adds new nucleotides
The ENZYMES are Helicase and Polymerase

Semi-Conservative Model

the correct replication model, 1/2 of old strands and 1/2 of new strands

Three types of Replication Models

Conservative (old strands stay together)
Dispersive (mix of old strands and new strands)
Semi-Conservative (1/2 old strands & 1/2 new strands)

Template strand DNA TTC GAG

Complementary strand DNA AAG CTC

Transformation

process that can change a harmless bacterial strain into a disease-causing strain

Bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

Base Pairing

In DNA, the fit between thymine and adenine and the fit between cytosine and guanine (A=T, C=G)

Replication

process that copies a DNA molecule, DNA separates into two strands during this process

DNA Polymerase

Main enzyme in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA, proofreads each new DNA strand to make sure that each molecule is a copy of the original

Telomere

tip of a chromosome

The center of the DNA strand exhibits

Base Pairing

What did Hershey & Chase study?

they studied a bacteriophage that was composed of a DNA core and a protein coat

This can begin at many places on the DNA molecule

replication

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