Microbiology

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B.

Each virus attacks only specific cell types because

a. the nucleic acids of the virus must match the nucleic acids of the host cell.
b. the proteins of the virus' outer capsid must be able to bind with the host cell membrane receptors.
c. viruses can only inject their genetic material into cells with weak walls or membranes.
d. viruses can only recognize and bind to cells which have the same shape as the virus.
e. all of the above

A

All of the following statements regarding lysogenic bacteriophages are true except

a. they cause the ribosomes of the host's cells to rupture.
b. They spend part of their life cycle as a prophage.
c. After infecting the host cell the virus' DNA becomes incorporated into the host's DNA.
d. The time between host cell infection and lysis may vary considerably.
e. May cause transduction.

C

Which human virus: disease combination is mispaired?

a. HIV: AIDS
b. Epstein-Barr virus: mononucleosis
c. adenovirus: cold sores and chicken pox
d. rhinovirus: common cold
e. rubella: German measles

C

Viruses

a. are the smallest living things.
b. all contain the same glycoproteins in their outer coverings.
c. contain a genome of either DNA or RNA.
d. can be classified on the basis of Gram staining results.
e. all of the above.

E

Retroviruses, such as HIV,

a. have RNA as their genetic material.
b. use reverse transcriptase to generate DNA.
c. often exist as a provirus.
d. may have along a period of time between infection and disease onset.
e. all of the above.

A

All of the following statements regarding the virus that causes AIDS are true except

a. it has a DNA based genome.
b. because it changes the glycoproteins in its outermost covering it has been difficult to develop a vaccine for
c. it can remain "dormant" in its host cells for many years.
d. it is a retrovirus.
e. it binds to special protein receptors on helper T-cells.

B

Reverse transcriptase is used by retroviruses to

a. dissemble the host cell DNA
b. transcribe viral RNA into DNA.
c. Convert host cell RNA into viral DNA
d. convert viral proteins into host RNA
e. translate viral RNA into a protein.

...

Why do viruses NOT infect other viruses?

a. The vial capsid is too thick.
b. Viruses produce antibodies against other viruses.
c. There would be no metabolic machinery to use.
d. There would not be enough amino acids or nucleotides to produce new virus components.
e. All of the above.

E. plants, animals and bacteria

Viruses are capable of infecting
a. plants only
b. animals only
c. bacteria only
d. only plants and animals
e. plants, animals, and bacteria

B. The proteins of the virus' outer capsid must be able to bind with the host's membrane receptors.

Each virus attacks only specific cell types because
a. the nucleic acids of the virus must match the nucleic acids of the host cell.
b. the proteins of the virus' outer capsid must be able to bind with the host's membrane receptors
c. viruses can only inject their genetic material into cells with weak walls or membranes.
d. viruses can only recognize and bind to cells which have the same shape as the virus.
e. all the above.

A.

All of the following statements regarding lysogenic bacteriophages are true except
a. they cause the ribosomes of the host's cells to rupture.
b. they spend part of their life cycle as a prophage.
c. after infecting the host cell the virus' DNA becomes incorporated into the host's DNA.
d. The time between host cell infection and lysis may vary considerably.
e. May cause transduction.

E.

Viruses are not considered living because
a. they are unable to reproduce independently.
b. they lack the enzymes for carrying out metabolism.
c. they lack enzymes for protein production.
d. they are unable to manufacture ATP.
e. all the above.

C.

Which human virus: disease combination is mispaired?
a. HIV: AIDS
b. Epstein Barr Virus: mononucleosis
c. Adenovrus: cold sores and chicken pox
d. rhinovirus: common cold.
e. rubella: German measles

C.

Viruses:
a. are the smallest living things
b. all contain the same glycoproteins in their outer coverings.
c. contain a genome of either DNA or RNA
d. can be classified on the basis of Gram staining results
e. all of the above.

E.

Retroviruses, such as HIV
a. have RNA as their genetic material
b. use reverse transcriptase to generate DNA
c. often exist as a provirus
d. may have along time between infection and disease onset.
e. all of the above.

A.

All of the following statements regarding the virus that causes AIDS are true except
a. it has a DNA-based genome
b. because it changes the glycoproteins in its outermost covering it has been difficult to develop a vaccine for.
c. it can remain dormant in its host cells for many years.
d. it is a retrovirus.
e. it binds to special protein receptors on helper-T cells.

B.

Reverse transcriptase is used by retroviruses to
a. disassemble the host cell DNA
b. transcribe viral RNA into DNA
c. convert host cell RNA into viral DNA.
d. convert viral proteins into host RNA
e. translate viral RNA into a protein.

C.

Why do viruses NOT infect other viruses?
a. The viral capsid is too thick.
b. Viruses produce antibodies against other viruses.
c. There would be no metabolic machinery to use.
d. There would not be enough amino acids or nucleotides to produce new virus components.
e. all the above.

D.

Despite their name, the blue-green algae are not true algae because they
a. lack cytoplasm
b. have multiple light-capturing pigments
c. are chemosynthetic
d. are prokaryotes
e. lack ribosomes

A.

Which of the following conditions is not caused by bacteria?
a. influenza
b. tetanus
c. botulism
d. anthrax
e. Lyme disease

B.

During a transformation a bacterium acquires
a. DNA from a virus
b. DNA from the environment
c. DNA from conjugation
d. a second genophore
e. additional plasmids

A.

Strep throat is caused by a streptococcus bacterium when viewed with a microscope this organism would appear
a. spherical and in chains
b. spherical and in clusters
c. rod-shaped and in chains
d. rod-shaped and in pairs
e. none of the above

E

Since bacterial genomes lack introns, transcription produces
a. DNA
b. hnRNA
c. tRNA
d. rRNA
e. mRNA

E.

All of the following statements regarding prokaryotes are true except
a. they dominate the biosphere
b. they are the most numerous organisms on Earth
c. Some live in Earth's most extreme environments
d. they are important decomposers
e. They are important producers of Earth's oxygen

D.

Penicillin acts to inhibit bacteria growth by
a. preventing them from carrying out cellular respiration.
b. preventing protein synthesis in the bacteria.
c. causing their membranes to lose selectivity
d. preventing bacterial cell wall synthesis
e. preventing DNA replication.

C.

Since prokaryotes lack membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, where are the molecules necessary for the electron transport system found?
a. in the cytosol
b. on the cell wall
c. on the plasma membrane
d. in the matrix of the mitochondria
e. on the thylakoid's membrane

E.

Bacteria which are classified as Gram negative
a. have an outer membrane covering their peptidoglycan cell wall,
b. are often resistant to wall-inhibiting antibiotics such as penicillin
c. have a thinner cell wall than Gram positive bacteria
d. apppear pink when stained by Gram's staining
e. all of the above

D.

Bacteria reproduce by
a. mitosis
b. meiosis
c. conjugation
d. binary fission
e. transformation

B.

Which of the following do all protists have in common?
a. they are all mutlicellular
b. they are all eukaryotic
c. they are all photosynthetic
d. they all have cell walls
e. they are all fed by phagocytosis

E.

Which features of eukaryotes were first seen in protists?

a. sexual reproduction
b. meiosis
c. 9+2 microtubule arrangement
d. multicellularity
e. all of the above

B.

The Kingdom Protista includes all of the following except
a. slime molds
b. blue green algae
c. diatoms
d. dinoflagellates
e. red algae

C.

Algal protists are subdivided on the basis of their
a. method of locomotion
b. means of acquiring food
c. pigmentation
d. means of reproduction
e. none of the above

A

Which protist: characteristic pair is mismatched?
a. chlorophyta: also known as brown algae
b. Zoomastigotes: responsible for African Sleeping Sickness
c. Dinoflagellates: responsible for "red tide"
d. Diatoms: have silica-based shell
e. Ameoba: use pseudopods for locomotion

B.

Which of the following is a specialized water-regulating structure found in some protists?
a. kidneys
b. contractile vacuole
c. pseudopods
d. zoospore
e. lysosome

E.

Which of the following terms is not associated with the protist that causes malaria?
a. Sporozoan
b. plasmodium vivax
c. sporozoite
d. merozoite
e. Tsetse fly

D.

Protists are responsible for all of the following except
a. Irish Potato Famine
b. malaria
c. red tide
d. rabies
e. White Cliffs of Dover England

E

Which process is used by a Paramecium as a means of genetic recombination?
a. budding
b. binary fission
c. fusion
d. meiosis
d. conjugation

B.

Which Protist phyllum is believed to have given rise to the plant kingdom?
a. Pheophyta
b. chlorophyta
c. Rhodophyta
d. Euglenophyta
e. Diatoms

A

Which of the following events does not play a role in the lifecycle of a typical retrovirus?

A. Viral DNA is injected into the host cell.
B. Viral DNA is integrated int the host genome.
C. The gene for reverse transcriptase is transcribed and the mRNA is translated inside the host cell.
D. Viral DNA incorporated into the host genome may be replicated along with the host DNA.

D

A mature virus outside the host cell is called a virion. A virion may contain all of the following EXCEPT:
A. a capsid
B. an envelope made from a phospholipid bilayer
C. Core proteins
D. both RNA and DNA

D

Prior to infecting a bacterium, a bacteriophage must:
A. reproduce, making copies of the phage chromosome.
B. integrate its genome into the bacterial chromosome.
C. penetrate the bacterial cell wall completely.
D. attach to a receptor on the bacterial cell membrane.

A

Most viruses that infect animals:
A. enter the host cell via endocytosis
B. do not require a receptor protein to recognize the host cell.
C. leave their capsid outside the host cell.
D. can reproduce independently of a host cell.

D

Viruses most closely resemble
A. facultative anaerobes
B. aerobes
C. saphrophytes
D. parasites.

A

Which of the following describes a lysogenic cell?
A. a cell that harbors an inactive virus in its genome.
B. A cell that has developed immunity from viral infection.
C. Any cell infected with a virus.
D. A cell that is about to lyse as a result of viral infection.

A

Which of the following events does NOT play a role in the life of a typical retrovirus?
A. Viral DNA is injected into the host cell.
B. Viral DNA is integrated into the host genome.
C. The gene for reverse transcriptase is transcribed adn the mRNA is translated inside the host cell.
D. Viral DNA incorporated into the host genome may be replicated along with the host DNA.

D.

A mature virus outside the host cell is called a virion. A virion may contain all of the following EXCEPT:
A. Capsid
B. an envelope made from a phospholipid bilayer.
C. core proteins
D. both RNA and DNA

D

Prior to infecting a bacterium, a bacteriophage must:
A. reproduce, making copies of the phage chromosome
B. integrate its genome into the bacterial chromosome.
D. penetrate the bacterial cell wall completely.
D. attach to a receptor on the bacterial cell membrane.

A

Most viruses that infect animals:
A. enter the host cell via endocytosis
B. do not require a receptor protein to recognize the host cell.
C. leave their capsid outside the host cell.
D. can reproduce independently of a host cell.

D.

Viruses most closely resemble:
A. facultative anerobes
B. aerobes
C. saprophytes
D. parasites

A

Which of the following describes a lysogenic cell?
A. A cell that harbors an inactive virus in its genome.
B. A cell that has developed immunity for viral infection.
C. Any cell infected with a virus.
D. A cell that is about to lyse as a result of viral infection.

D.

A bacteriophage is easily recognizable due to:
A. a lysogenic life cycle
B. a protein capsid
C. circular nucleic acids
D. a tail and fibers

C.

Which of the following would never be found in the capsid of a virion?
A. single stranded DNA
B. double stranded RNA
C. ribosomes
D. reverse transcriptase

D

Which of the following structures are found in prokaryotes?
I. A cell wall containing peptidoglycan.
II. A plasma membrane lacking cholesterol
III. Ribosomes

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and II only
D. I, II, and III

C

DNA from phage resistant bacteria is extracted and placed on agar with phage-sensitive E. coli. After incubation it is determined that these E. coli are now also resistant to phage attack. The most likely mechanism for their acquisition of resistance is:
A. transduction
B. sexual reproduction
C. transformation
D. conjugation

B.

Bacteriphages are parasites that infect bacterial cells in order to carry on their life function. When a phage transfers bacterial DNA from one host to another this process is called:
A. transformation
B. transduction
C. conjugation
D. transmission

B

The lipololysaccharide layer outside the peptidoglycan cell wall of a gram negative bacterium:
A. absorbs and holds gram stain.
B. protects the bacterium against certain antibiotics
C. does not contain phospholipids
D. allows the bacterium to attach to solid objects.

D.

The exponential growth that occurs in E. coli at 37C following inoculation of a sterile, nutrient-rich solution results from:
A. conjugation
B. transformation
C. sporulation
D. binary fission

B

A staphylococcus infection is most likely caused by an organism that is:
A. rod-shaped
B. spherical
C. a rigid helix
D. a non-rigid helix

C

Which of the following is a mechanism for reproduction in Bacteria?
A. transduction
B. conjugation
C. binary fission
D. transformation

B.

Penicillin interferes with peptidoglycan formation. Penicillin most likely inhibits bacterial growth by disrupting the production of:
A. bacterial plasma membranes
B. prokaryotic cell walls
C. the bacterial nucleus
D. bacterial ribosomes

D.

Fungi are classified as a distinct kingdom because:
A. they don't undergo mitosis
B. they reproduce asexually
C. sexual reproduction involves the union of different mating types, plus and minus strains.
D. they have characteristics that are both plant-like and animal-like

D.

Which of the following is not a result of sexual reproduction in fungi?
A. Hyphae of + and - mycelia meet and fuse.
B. Fertilization produces a diploid state.
C. diploid cell undergoes meiosis.
D. cell division lengthens mycelia.

D

Fungi are considered saprophytic because:
A. they reproduce by budding.
B. they reproduce by sporulation.
C. they absorb chemicals through a mass of tiny threads
D. they acquire energy from the break down of the dead remains of living organsims.

B.

All of the following states are true concerning most fungi EXCEPT:
A. They have cell walls made of chitin.
B. They are autotrophs
C. Their growth stage is composed of filaments containing many nuclei.
D. Their life cycle alternates between a haploid and diploid stage.

A

What selective advantage is offered by the haploid state of fungi?
A. The haploid state can reproduce more quickly than the diploid state under favorable conditions.
B. The haploid state is more genetically diverse.
C. The haploid state produces a large number of cells.
D. The haploid state requires less energy to sustain itself.

C

Which of the following is the best explanation for why fungicides tend to cause more side effects in humans than do bacterial antibiotics?
A. Chitin is more difficult to break down than peptidoglycan
B. Fungus doesn't respond to penicillin.
Fungal cells are more similar to human cells than are bacterial cells.
D. Fungus is a topical infection

B

The kingdom Fungi is divided into:
A. phyla
B. divisions
C. orders
D. species

B

Which of the following is true of Fungi?
A. Fungi prey upon only dead organic matter.
B. Fungi digest their food outside their bodies.
C. Fungi undergo meiosis during asexual reproduction
D/ All fungi are obligate aerobes.

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