Freshman Biology - Chapter 10 - Cell Growth and Division

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Freshman Biology - Chapter 10 - Cell Growth and Division

cell division

process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells

asexual reproduction

process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent

sexual reproduction

type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to fore the first cell of a new organism

chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic information that is passed from one generation to the next

chromatin

substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones

cell cycle

series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells

interphase

period of the cell cycle between cell divisions

mitosis

part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells

prophase

first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible

centromere

region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach

chromatid

one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome

centriole

structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division

metaphase

phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

anaphase

phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell

telophase

phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin

cyclin

one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

growth factor

one of a group of external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells

apoptosis

process of programmed cell death

cancer

disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth

tumor

mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage surrounding tissue

embryo

developing stage of a multicellular organism

differentiation

process in which cells become specialized in structure and function

totipotent

cells that are able to develop into any type of cell found in the body (including the cells that make up the extraembryonic membranes and placenta)

blastocyst

stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells

pluripotent

cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types

stem cell

unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells

multipotent

cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells

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