practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
A series of paired statements that describe the physical characteristics of different organisms
a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
a major biotic community characterized by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate
a region with a certain type of plant life, soil, geography, and climate
a group of organisms (plants and animals) that live together in a certain geographical region and constitute a community with a few dominant species
the configuration of a surface and the relations among its man-made and natural features
shade intolerant plants grow earlier in succession because they have access to sunlight. shade tolerant plants grow in climax communities because they are able to grow in the shade of the shade intolerant trees and eventually take over the area.
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
flourishing in or preferring locations with abundant nitrogen
heath family use ammonia form of nitrogen.
related with physical and chemical composition of soil
first species to populate an area during primary succession
water source:precipitation, slope position: ridges, crests, upper slopes, drainage: rapid, humus: very shallow
water source: precipitation and limited seepage, slope position: mid-slope, rolling to level, drainage: well to moderately well, humus: moderately deep
water source: primarily seepage, slope position: lower; receiving, drainage:imperfect to poor, humus: deep to very deep
water source: permanent water table, slope position: depressions; receiving, drainage: very poor, humus: very deep
substance or rich soil formed by decaying vegetable matter; CF. soil
a) thin flattened structure attached to the underside of a conifer cone scale (eg. 3-pointed bracts of douglas-fir)
b) leaf-like structure at the base of one or more flowers (large white bracts of pacific dogwood)
in conifers, particularly pines, where 2 or more needles are attached at their bases in a "bundle". in contrast, the needles of most conifers are single at the point of attachment.
leaf with a blade divided into leaflets
the flattened woody component of the conifer cone which bear the seeds. scales are arranged spirally around the central cone axis.
smooth leaf edge, with no indentations
the leaf of a fern or palm, usually compound
specialized outgrowth of fern leaf that covers sori
very deep indentations in a leaf margin
a type of leaf venation in which the principal veins branch out, like fingers on a hand, from the apex of the petiole
the leaf stalk
"leaflets" on a frond
subdivisions of pinnae
"sawtooth", forward pointing indentations on a leaf margin
leaf in which the blade is not divided into leaflets
ferm stem or supporting stalk
patterns of veins in a leaf
How many biogeoclimatic zones are described in bc?
Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWHZ)
Alaska down coast of BC & Washington, Van isl. & QC isl. seal level to 900m elevation locally. rainiest of all zone. annual temp 8C. cool summers and mild winters w/ little seasonal drought. soils are acidic w/ moderate to heavy leeching. large proportion of humus. dominant tree species western hemlock and rec cedar.
Generalized role of edaphic factor
modify effects of the climate. can be soil (depth) &/or topography. ie:
concept of site indicator species and zonal indicator species
site indicator species are dominant species in an area that has specific edaphic factors. zonal indicator species are commonly found in a certain biogeoclimatic zone which they indicate with their presence.
ecological significance of ericaceae family
they use ammonia form of nitrogen rather than nitrates.
describe differences btwn four plant associations described in the lab
xeric(salal association)-bracken fern, trailing blackberry, red huckleberry, salal
mesic(western sword fern assoc.)-indian plum, vine maple, red huckleberry, trailing blackberry, wild rose
hyrgic(salmonberry assoc.)-thimbleberry, broadleaf maple, red elderberry, salmonberry, deer fern,
hydric(skunk cabbage assoc.)-devil's club, oval-leafed blueberry, salmonberry, lady fern, western red cedar, skunk cabbage