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lee university- mmurra01@leeu.edu

gender stratification

unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on sex

Gender

social characteristics that distinguish males from females

Standards of beauty

vary from culture to culture based on what physical characteristics each culture finds desirable

Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?

it is a master status cutting across all aspects of life

sex

biological characteristics

primary sex characteristic

uterus (in women)

gender differences

based on social factors

socialization and social control

According to Cynthia Fuchs Epstein's theory, distinctions between the type of work performed by men and women is based on:

chromosome configuration male; female

XY; XX

nature argument

biology leads to different behaviors based on sex, socialization and social institutions merely reflect (if not exaggerate) inborn tendencies.

nurture argument

social factors create gender differences in behavior

Alice Rossi

proposed the concept that women are better prepared biologically for "mothering" than men

Alice Rossi

suggested that nature provides biological predispositions that are overlaid with culture.

According to most research, men who have higher levels of testosterone:

are more aggressive

In addition to high testeroterone levels, male aggression is predicted by:

the social class of the male

In 1963, 7 month old twin boys underwent routine circumcision. One boy was seriously injured and the parents decided to raise him as a girl. What was the outcome?

Brenda rejected dolls, favored guns, and eventually returned to being a male

Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?

women are discriminated against because of their physical characteristics

Vietnam Veterans Study

concluded that human behavior is a mix of nature vs. nurture, social class plays a significant role

sex typing of work

study done by George Murdock

sex typing of work

studies suggest that activities considered "female" in one society could be considered "male" in another society

In George Murdock's study of sex typing and work, what was the one occupation that was always a man's job?

metal working

gender and prestige of work

male activities always have greater prestige

male prestige of work (example)

delivering babies, doctors (male) have greater prestige than midwives (female)

honor killing

the execution of a female by a male relative for "disgracing the family"

doctoral degree with greatest percentage of men

engineering

doctoral degree with greatest percentage of women

psychology

proposed affirmative action for men

Judith Kleinfeld

affirmative action for men

study by judith kleinfeld aimed to shed light on why boys are less likely than girls to seek postsecondary education.

What country in the world has the highest illiteracy rate for females and males, with 92% of females and 76% of males unable to read.

Niger

The year that women first voted in national elections in the United States:

1920

According to Frederick Engels, what was responsible for the development of partriarchy?

the development of private property

What group is most associated with the phrase "biology is not destiny"?

feminists

The first wave of the women's movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What was the goal of the radical branch?

reforming all institutions of society

What act did members of the National Women's Party engage in to gain the right to vote in 1917?

they picketed the White House

Which wave of the women's movement focused on the problems of women in the Least Industrialzied Societies?

fourth

The majority of students graduating with a degree in elementary education are women. Research has shown that this sex-typing of majors is primarily due to ____ .

gender socialization

What sport did Foley and Eder study to examine the devaluation of females as a method of motivating men?

football

To what do sociologists compare the conversations between a man and a woman?

an employer and an employee

Many students, when they graduate from college, will be able to earn an extra $2300 a month between the ages of 25 and 65. How does the student accomplish this "bonus"?

be born a male

Joan and Jim were both hired to do the same work at a college in Kentucky, although Jim's title is slightly different than Joan's. Yet Jim received a higher starting salary than Joan. What do sociologists call this form of employment discrimination?

the testosterone bonus

Based on the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?

college graduates

According to sociologist Christin Williams, men who are employed in positions traditionally considered "women's occupations," encounter:

the glass escalator which allows faster promotion

Of the nation's top 500 corporations, referred to as the "Fortune 500," how many were headed by women in 2005?

twelve

Which of the following best describes how feminists view sexual harrassment?

it is based by the structural problems imbedded in society

What term describes the invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of a corporation?

the glass ceiling

Sexual harrassment was not recognized as a social problem until the:

1970's

race

physical attributes

Which statement best summarizes the relationship between killers and their victims:

men outnumber women as both victims and killers

What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?

a race

mass killings because of race or ethnicity

genocide

The massacre of Native Americans in the 1800s, the extermination of the Jews in Nazi Germany, and the slaughter of the Tutsis in Rwanda are all examples of ________.

genocide

As described in the text, what are the two myths of race?

one race is superior to another; pure races exist

How did the 2000 U.S. Census instruct Americans to classify themselves in relation to race?

Respondents can choose one or more races that they consider themselves to be.

ethnicity

cultural attirbutes

While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.

ethnicity

Which statement is most accurate regarding the meaning of race?

Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.

What term did Louis Wirth use to define groups of people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?

minority group

term given to groups with the most power, greatest privilege, and highest social status

dominant groups

What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?

positive prejudice

activities done to maintain, discover, or enhance one's racial or ethnic identity

ethnic work

a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government of South Africa between 1948 and 1993

Apartheid

The belief held by many African Americans that lighter skinned African American women are more attractive than those with darker skin is referred to as ________.

the internalization of the norms of the dominant group

Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________.

attitudes; actions

Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe ________.

prejudice and discrimination

What is the Implicit Association Test?

It is a visual perception test that links race to desirable and undesirable words.

Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George was granted a loan. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ________ against Pedro.

institutional discrimination

Who developed the theory of prejudice that addressed frustration levels and scapegoats?

Theodor Adorno

According to Adorno, a(n) ________ is a person who is prejudiced and ranks high on scales of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors.

authoritarian personality

an individual or group unfairly blamed for someone else's troubles

scapegoat

The group in society made up of the unemployed who can be put to work during times of high production and then laid off when they are no longer needed is called ________.

the reserve labor force

theory or perspective states that "business owners keep their workers insecure so they don't unite and demand higher wages"

conflict theory on the reserve labor force

________ refers to seeing certain features of a situation while ignoring others, and the use of labels to group individual members as if they were all alike.

Selective perception

When an executioner wears a hood he is separating his true identity (the man without a hood) from the one carrying out the execution. Such behavior is part of an effort to separate one's feelings from one's acts, called ________.

compartmentalization

Slavery and apartheid are both examples of the ways in which a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?

internal colonialism

When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.

forced assimilation

Switzerland is made up of four separate ethnic groups that have kept their own languages but are peacefully united politically and economically. This pattern of intergroup relations is an example of ________.

multiculturalism

What is another name for multiculturalism?

pluralism

What is the largest minority group in the United States today?

Latino American

The 1896 Supreme Court ruling that approved "separate but equal" accommodations for blacks and whites as a reasonable use of state power was ________.

Plessy v. Ferguson

What does it mean when sociologists say that age is "socially constructed"?

Age is based on cultural attitudes that are rooted in a society.

Of the following countries, in which one do the citizens have the longest life expectancy?

Japan

Of the following groups of Americans, which one has the lowest median age?

Latinos

What term refers to the maximum length of life that is possible for a species?

life span

The term "________" refers to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age, and was coined by the physician ________.

ageism; Robert Butler

Prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age (old or young)

ageism

How do theorists view the relationship between industrialization and the elderly in the United States?

The social value of the elderly decreased with industrialization.

Which theory, developed by Swedish sociologist Lars Tornstam, describes the transformation of the elderly to feel more at one with the universe and more understanding in their perception of social issues?

gerotranscendence

Because the first of the baby boom generation has now turned 60, we are likely to see a shift to more positive images of the elderly. What is the major reason for this?

Their vast numbers translate into economic clout and political power.

With respect to contemporary China, which of the following statements best reflects its policy toward the elderly?

Children are obligated by tradition,and sometimes contract, to care for aging parents.

What sociological perspective stresses that age has no inherent meaning and that each culture shapes the way that its citizens perceive the elderly?

symbolic interactionism

Dr. Loomis' introductory sociology class is composed entirely of first-year students who are 18 years old. Together, these 55 students, and all other 18-year-olds, comprise a(n) ________.

age cohort

Which theory posits the notion that retirement is a mutually beneficial agreement between two parts of society, the old and the young?

disengagement theory

What did the research by anthropologist Dorothy Jerrome show regarding the ways in which the elderly actually retire?

They exchange one set of roles for another set of roles.

Which sociological perspective is most closely aligned with the disengagement, activity, and continuity theories of aging?

functionalism

physician who started a movement in 1930 to levy a 2 percent national sales tax to support the elderly, eventually lost to Roosevelt's plan

Francis Townsend

The number of workers required to support one dependent member of society is called the ________.

dependency ratio

Who proposed the Social Security plan that was finally adopted by Congress in 1934?

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Which sociological perspective is most closely aligned with the explanation that Social Security benefits came about as the result of a struggle between competing interest groups?

the conflict perspective

What is the politically powerful group with 39 million members that monitors federal and state legislation and mobilizes its elderly members to act on issues affecting their welfare?

American Association of Retired Persons

Which of the following factors most transformed the process of dying into an event to be managed by professionals?

industrialization

________ was the psychologist who developed a five-stage process describing the ways in which people cope during the living-dying interval.

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross

Francis has recently been told that he has a terminal disease and can expect to live for only a short time. He has made a will, paid all his bills, and given instructions to his children. According to Kübler-Ross, Francis is in the stage of ________.

acceptance

LuAnn has a terminal disease and is close to death. Every other day, a person comes to her home and monitors her health signs, talks with her, and answers any questions the family has about LuAnn. The services provided LuAnn are referred to as ________.

hospice

A person who is dying in the sterile environment of a hospital, surrounded by medical professionals and beeping machines, is experiencing ________.

institutional death

Continuity theory and disengagement theory are aligned with the functionalist perspective.

TRUE

Hunting and gathering societies that generate very little surplus food and material property are described by sociologists as ________ economies.

subsistence

What condition had to exist before members of a society could create a permanent or semi-permanent place to live?

a surplus of food that could be distributed and exchanged

What term describes a system that emphasizes hard work, savings, and a concern for salvation?

Protestant ethic

The "global village" refers to ________.

the linking of the world's nations by fast communications, trade, and transportation

The eagerness to show wealth by the purchase and visible ownership of goods is called ________.

conspicuous consumption

The plow was to the agricultural society as the ________ was to the industrial society.

steam engine

What was the earliest medium of exchange?

barter system

At the marketplace, Blossom brings pastries that she bakes to exchange for clothing. David brings chickens to trade for Blossom's pastries. What medium of exchange does this illustrate?

barter

What is the determining factor for inflation to occur? font color = blue>

Currency is issued at a higher rate than the growth of the Gross Domestic Product.

In theory, industries can manufacture and sell poisons, bombs, and weapons of any type as long as there are consumers to buy them and they operate within a government that permits ________.

laissez-faire capitalism

In the United States, government interventions that restrict a person's ability to immediately produce and sell a product that he or she has discovered or invented are referred to as ________.

market restraints

What is another name for "welfare capitalism"?

state capitalism

Which of the following social or economic arrangements is described as being the "capitalist's dream"?

a monopoly

In socialism, who or what determines what will be produced and what it will cost?

the central committee that decides what the country needs

How would Karl Marx define "profit"?

the excess value of a product that is withheld from workers

What is the primary criticism leveled against capitalism?

It leads to severe social inequalities.

What theory is based on the idea that the two economic systems - capitalism and socialism - will eventually adopt features of one another until there is a hybrid economic system in all societies?

convergence theory

What has been the most significant economic change in the last 100 years, one that may even rival the Industrial Revolution in its impact on people's lives?

the global integration of giant corporations

What term did Durkheim use to refer to the sense of unity that comes from doing similar activities and directly sharing most aspects of life?

mechanical solidarity

What term did Durkheim use to refer to the global division of labor that has led to specific tasks performed by members of society and a lessening of social cohesion?

organic solidarity

The groups that head the country's top corporations and have access to high-level politicians, which they use to promote legislation favorable to big business, are known as ________.

inner circles

Frank Buckman sits on the board of directors for seven oil companies and three corporations that manufacture oil rigs and oil-producing machinery. Several of his closest business associates belong to the same boards. Such a scenario is an example of a(n) ________.

interlocking directorate

Theorists who believe that corporations use profit as their moral guide, with no concern for how opening and closing factories affects workers, are most aligned with which sociological perspective?

the conflict perspective

Sociologists use the term "________" to refer to the fundamental changes in society that occur as a result of vast numbers of women entering the workforce.

quiet revolution

Economic activities, illegal or legal, that people do not report to the government are sometimes referred to as the ________ economy.

underground

The society with the most leisure time spread rather consistently throughout the year is the ________ society.

hunting and gathering

Why is every group considered political in some sense?

there is a power struggle of some sort in every group

The term micropolitics is most aligned with which sociological perspective?

symbolic interaction

The exercise of power over large groups by governments is called:

macropolitics

For a government to be stable, what quality must exist?

the source of the power must be perceived as legitimate

Which sociologist is credited with describing violence as "the ultimate foundation of any political order"?

Peter Berger

What is armed resistance with the intention of overthrowing a government called?

a revolution

What sociologist developed the three ideal types of authority?

Max Weber

rule by written law

rational-legal authority

What is the literal translation of the word charismatic , based on its Greek origin?

it means a gift freely and graciously given

Why was the American Revolution classified as a "revolution?"

it was armed resistance designed to overthrow the British colonial government

Which United States president does Henslin cite as an example of a leader who combined charismatic and rational-legal authority?

John F. Kennedy

What did Joan of Arc, Adolph Hitler, and Jesus Christ have in common?

they were all charisimatic leaders

What was Max Weber's term for a composite of characteristics found in many real life examples?

ideal types

Leaders sometimes have a combination of ideal types of authority. What two types of authoritydid the Ayatollah Khomeini most represent?

charismatic and traditional authority

What is a system of government in which decision making is vested in a small group of people?

an oligarchy

Why was it possible for a peaceful transfer of power to take place in South Africa when President deKlerk (a powerful white South African) was replaced by Nelson Mandela (a black South African)?

the nation followed the procedures based on rational legal authority

What is the specific political gift that Americans gave the world, based on a person's birth and residence? ____ democracy.

the concept of citizenship

Which of the following power styles is the best example of totalitarianism?____

Nazi Germany and the Gestapo

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