The smallest part of an element that still retains the element's characteristics. Also considered the building blocks of matter.
Positive subatomic particle, located in the nucleus of an atom.
the positively charged dense center of an atom
neutral particle of an atom
an elementary particle with negative charge
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
2 hydrogen atoms(+), 1 oxygen atom(-)
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
the dissolved substance in a solution
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
mixture of water and nondissolved material
measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution (0-14)
a positively charged atom of hydrogen
the anion OH having one oxygen and one hydrogen atom
(lower than 7, on the pH scale) any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
(above 7, on the pH scale) any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
the smaller units of macromolecules
the larger units of macromolecules (monomers combine to form this)
formed by carbon and hydrogen atoms; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Sugar molecules (monosaccharides and polysaccharides). Starch. It is a key source of energy; Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, Formula - CH2O,
Organic compounds formed mainly from carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen; Formed from monomers called amino acids; temperature and pH can affect the shape and structure of this. Ex. egg.
Fatty components made of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen; Examples: Fatty acids, Oils and Waxes; Does not dissolve in water; Stores Energy
Complex organic molecule that stores information in the nucleus. Examples: DNA and RNA
Sugar, Manufactured during photosynthesis, Main source of energy for plants and animals, Metabolized during cellular respiration
Sugar, found in fruits, is a monosaccharide
Double sugar formed from two monosaccharides linked together, Examples: Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
(is the subunit) Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. It's the simplest carbohydrate.
A complex molecule made of three or more monosaccharides.(Examples: Glycogen, starch, cellulose)
A type of lipid in which the macromolecule is composed of three molecules of fatty acids joined to a glycerol molecule.
A polysaccharide that stores glucose in animals.
A polysaccharide that stores glucose in plants.
Gives strength and rigidity to a plant cell.
A type of lipid in which the macromolecule is composed of three molecules of fatty acids joined to a glycerol molecule
Type of lipid, A long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group attached at one end
Type of lipid, Triglycerides that are liquids at room temperature
Type of lipid, Triglyceride that are solids at room temperature
A type of lipid that makes up the cell membrane.
Type of lipid; Hormones, Nerve tissues and some organic poisons
Makes up proteins, Have covalent bonds called peptide bonds
two amino acids bonded together
Long chain of amino acids, two or more of these can create a protein
type of nucleic acid, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Stores information about cell activities and hereditary information
type of nucleic acid, Ribonucleic Acid, Protein synthesis
nucleic acid monomers, contains nitrogenous base, phosphorus group, and a sugar
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
A substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
A process in which one or more substances are changed into others
Reactant of enzyme - catalyzed reactants
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
Larger molecules are chemically broken down into water molecules and water is destroyed. Opposite of dehydration synthesis.
A process in which large molecules are built from small molecules
A process in which large molecules are broken down
C6H12O6 + O2==> CO + H2O + E, , The metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules
CO + H2O + E ==>C6H12O6 + O2, , food making process in plant cells
Straight sequence of amino acids
Plated or helical (twisted) structure of amino acids
The 3 dimensional folded structure of a polypeptide or protein molecule
Two or more polypeptide chains jumbled together