Invertebrates Unit

89 terms by prispin 

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flashcards based on the review for the invertebrates test at EHS in spring 2011

cephalization

concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body

hermaphrodite

individual that has both male and female reproductive organs

coelom

a body cavity between the germ layers, contains internal organs

open circulation

blood doesn't remain only in blood vessels; it is pumped, but doesn't go back to the heart

closed circulation

circulatory system that keeps blood inside a network of blood vessels

germ layer

one of the primary tissues of the embryo - becomes specialized as the animal grows and develops

endoderm

the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems

mesoderm

the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue

ectoderm

the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue

dorsal

the back or spine side of an animal

ventral

the front or stomach side of an animal

porifera

sponges

spicules

The bodies of many sponges have sharp structures called ________ that provide support and protection

spongin

flexible, structural protein fibers in softer sponges

osculum

the large opening usually on top of sponge through which filtered water is expelled

choanocyte

specialized cell in sponges that uses a flagellum to move a steady current of water through the sponge

pore

any small opening in the skin or outer surface of an animal

sessile

doesn't move

do sponges have a nervous system?

no!

nematocyte

An organelle on a Cnidarian that has coiled spring w/ barbs and toxins - used to catch and stun prey

polyp

sessile stage of the life cycle of a cnidarian that has a tube shaped body and tentacles - anemones and coral stay in this stage

medusa

motile stage of the life cycle of a cnidarian that has a bell-shaped body - jellyfish

filter feeder

organism that filters small particles from water to get its food (that's a clam in the picture)

eyespots

Located near the cerebral ganglia, planarians use this organ to sense the intensity and direction of light

flame cells

specialized cells that remove excess water from the body (flatworms)

platyhelminthes

flatworms - like tapeworms and turbellarians

nematoda

roundworms - like hookworms. Some cause trichinosis

annelida

segmented worms - like earthworms

pharynx

opening at the anterior (front) end of the digestive canal. the way that flatworms get their food into the body

the simplest invertebrate to have a mouth AND an anus

roundworms

arthropods

invertebrates that have external skeletons, joint appendages, and segmented bodies

why must a terrestrial annelid have moist skin?

moist skin helps it breathe - earthworms use their skin for respiration

most primitive animal with a pharynx

planarians

clitellum

a ring on an annelid's body that holds sperm and eggs during and after fertilization

cephalopoda

means head foot - squids & octopuses

gastropoda

means stomach foot - snails and slugs

bivalve

means two shells - a mollusk that has two shells held together by hinges and strong muscles

does a squid have a closed- or open- circulatory system?

closed! It needs to be able to pump blood back to the heart and around in order to move lots of O2 when it is swimming

does a clam have a closed or open circulatory system?

open! Clams are sessile filter feeders. They don't move much, so they don't need to move oxygen around their bodies fast.

soft bodied animals with external or internal shells

mollusks!

uniramia

subphylum of arthropods including insects like butterflies, beetles, bees, and ants

crustacea

subphylum of arthropoda; crabs, lobsters, crayfish, and shrimp

chelicerata

subphylum of arthropoda that includes spiders, scorpions, ticks, and horseshoe crabs

chelicerae

pair of mouthparts in chelicerates that contain fangs and are used to stab and paralyze prey (they're black in this picture)

mandibles

jawlike mouth parts in all crustaceans and some uniramia

subphylum of arthropods that has many different kinds of mouth parts

uniramia (insects)

malphighian tubules

Spiders & insects use them to excrete ammonia waste

jointed appendage

structure, such as a leg or antenna, that extends from the body wall and has joints where it bends

molting

process that arthropods use to allow growth - shedding small shells and growing into larger soft shells

drawbacks of molting

animal is vulnerable while the new shell is still soft

exoskeleton

hard protective structure developed outside the body, as the shell of a lobster

stomach side of an animal

ventral

back side of an animal

dorsal

head end of an animal

anterior

tail end of an animal

posterior

stinging cell in cnidarians

nematocyst

large cavity used for cnidarian digestion

gastrovascular cavity

spicules

make up the skeleton of hard sponges

worm phylum WITHOUT two openings to the digestive system

flatworms/platyhelminthes

pore-bearers (pore-carriers)

porifera - sponges

simplest animal with a pharynx

flatworms

means stomach-foot

gastropod

means head-foot

cephalopod

means two shells

bivalves

includes squid and octopus

cephalopod

some of these filter-feed

bivalves (clams do it)

why a squid needs a closed circulatory system

uses lots of oxygen when it swims; needs to move blood fast

phylum with internal OR external shells

mollusks

clusters of nerve cells

ganglia

the two phyla with radial symmetry

cnidarians and echinoderms

concentration of nerve cells at the head of the body

cephalization

fluid-filled body cavity

coelom

the way crustaceans breathe

gills

this phylum's animals use stinging tentacles

cnidarians

symmetry with right and left sides

bilateral symmetry

symmetry repeated around a center point

radial symmetry

the mollusk structure used as a digging tool in clams and as tentacles in squids

the foot

the phylum with no symmetry

porifera

If this animal has a digestive tract and a shell and a closed circulatory system it is a(n)...

mollusk

If this animal has an exoskeleton it is a(n)...

arthropod

this removes liquid waste from planaria

flame cells

this removes liquid waste from some terrestrial arthropods

malphighian tubules

cephalothorax and abdomen are in which group(s) of arthropods?

crustaceans and chelicerates (spiders etc)

head, thorax and abdomen are in which group(s) of arthropods?

uniramians (insects)

crawfish are in this sub-phylum of arthropods

crustacea

spiders are in this sub-phylum of arthropods

chelicerates

ants are in this sub-phylum of arthropods

uniramia

sub-phylum of arthropods with a wide variety of mouth parts

uniramia (insects)

bell-shaped, motile stage in cnidarian life cycle

medusa (like jellyfish)

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