Where do the very first records of drama and theater come from?
Athens,Greece, and date back from the 6th century BCE
By the 5th century BCE
the golden age of Athenian theatre and drama, Athens had already established the worlds first democracy
What did Athens do to celebrate its culture?
sponsored a number of public festivals
What God was Athens festivals dedicated to?
Where was the history of styles and periods in?
Western Theatre. This study has historically underemphasized traditions of performance in African and Eastern cultures.
The Catholic Church
English, Italian, Spanish
18th and 19th Centuries
realism and genres
the center of power
Theatre grew out of the physicalized performance of poetry
choral odes; poems for choral recitation, darkly themed) basis of tragedy
rites celebrating male sexual potency; with comic basis
Aristotle was writing...
about two hundred years after the first recorded theatre performance
Aristotle defined acting as...
"the right management of the voice to express the various emotions."
Song and recitation were more important than expressive movement in early Greek tragedy
The Ritual Theory
proposes that Greek drama evolved from early religious rituals devoted to the G-d Dionysus
The Great Man Theory
the appearance of tradegy and comedy arose as creative acts of human genius; an artist purposely synthesized elements that already existed in Athenian society into a new form, the drama
The Storytelling Theory
storytellers would naturally tend to elaborate parts of the telling by impersonating the various characters
The Dance Theory
Movement rather than speech at the core of drama
Greek theatre was closely associated with..
Greek theatre was performed only..
on special occasions (the festivals)
Greek theatre was choral
a group of men who dressed alike who move, sang, and spoke together most of the time
How many men in tradegy?
How many men in comedies?
Greek theatre was...
What happened at the Great Dionysia?
three tragic writers competed each year for a prize
What did you need to compete at the Great Dionysia?
three tradegies, one satyr play
Greek theatre was subsidized
How were they subsidized?
each author was matched with a wealthy citizen-sponsor who was responsible for meeting the costs incurred by the chorus
How many plays usually survive completely in the Greek theatre?
credited as being the first actor, introduced the "invention" of characterization around 560 B.C.E. in Athens. His art was labeled a "dangerous deception" by authorities
What did Thespis win?
in 535 B.C.E was invited to compete in the first play competition held during the Dionysian festivals in Athens;first public contest for tragic poets in Greece and won
Agamemnon, 458 B.C.E.added a second "actor"; often wrote trilogies
What is Aeschylus famous for?
heroic characters, simple put powerful plots, lofty diction
added a third actor (reduced the significance of the chorus); wrote plays that explored the place of humans within that order; (Oedipus Rex) recognized by most critics
The individual characters in Sophocles tended to be..
more complex, to make more decisions, display more individual traits; The trio of actors consisted of the Protagonist (leading), the Deuteragonist (second) and the Tritagonist (third)
the late tragedies ; a more naturalistic style, physical choreography, Dance re-emerged as a component of the actor's performance; examined human relationships more
What is the structure of old comedy?
divided into two parts; separated by a direct address by the chorus or choral leader to the audience, breaking the dramatic illusion
In an old comedy, what are the events?
buffoonery and farce attacks individuals and portrays the foibles of a social class
In Greek, theatre meant..
The Theatre of Dionysus
(Athens first important theatre) situated on hillside with orchestra at base
What was the fundamental arrangement to all Greek theatres?
hillside, orchestra, parodoi
The orchestra was circular
Tent or Booth
conventional form in which actors perform in front of a neutral facade with the audience arcing to three sides or less
No more than how many speaking actors in tradegies?
No more than how many speaking actors in comedies?
What does 350-250 B.C.E. represent?
Hellenistic or Colonial period in Greece marks an era when comedy is preferred over tragedy
What was the essential setting?
a moveable platform capable of being rolled or rotated out of the skene to reveal the result of an offstage action
crane that allowed people and things to fly in and out
with exaggerated facial expressions, grossly outlined character facial features, and visible in theatres that seated thousands
Thick soled boots - essentially platformed shoes that raised the height of the actor
the toning down of Greek old comedies and substituting it with a more benign tone
a more polished and refined humor that centers on the shortcomings of the middle class
The 3 day Dionysian festival included:
athletic contests & recitations of dithyrambic (verse
out of these competitive recitals grew the earliest forms of tragedy)
Comedy during the Hellenistic period moved more toward..
grander and showier acting style and more representational in comedy and more restrained
Dionysian festivals during the spring usually performed..
Usually performed during the winter religious festivals called Lenaea was..
action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude
the form of action, not narrative
pity and fear and the catharsis of such emotions
the best tragic protagonist is one who causes his own downfall through some great tragic terror
Early comic performers
exaggerated masks, padded costumes with an obvious "pendant phallus," recalling the Comedy's origins in phallic songs chanted to Dionysus
wrote many of the older Greek Comedies between 425 B.C.E. and 388 B.C.E. (including Birds and Lysistrata)
Aristophanes plays were usually
satirical, and at times broadly farcical. The chorus addressed the audience and was often critical of social or political figures
wrote later comedies (around 300 B.C.E.), which contrasted with the older style
Menanders plays were..
more elegantly written; set in the middle class world of urban Greece relied much less on the chorus to further the plot
Built into hillsides, Full-circle or square shaped orchestra, sides open