76. ____ are sets of principles and definitions about how societies operate and how people relate to one another.
b. Sociological theories
77. Which one of the following is a false statement regarding the relationship between theory and research?
a. Theories inspire research.
b. Research can be used to support, disprove, or modify theories.
c. Facts generated by research are meaningless without theory to interpret them.
d. Theory comes before research.
78. ____ use biological analogies to explain how society operates.
b. Symbolic interactionists
79. According to functionalists, poverty exists because
a. the poor lack skills to do better.
b. it contributes to the stability of the overall economic system.
c. the poor lack the drive to do better.
d. somebody has to be on the bottom.
80. Community-wide celebrations can break down barriers across neighborhoods. The effect can be classified as a
a. manifest function.
b. latent function.
c. manifest dysfunction.
d. latent dysfunction.
81. An unexpected outcome of the maquiladora program is the rapid and unregulated population growth along the border. This outcome is an example of a
a. manifest function.
b. manifest dysfunction.
c. latent function.
d. latent dysfunction.
82. The question "Who benefits from a particular pattern or social arrangement?" is of most interest to a(n)
b. conflict theorist.
c. symbolic interactionist.
d. action theorist.
83. Which perspective focuses on how people make sense of the world?
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction
d. action theory
84. Which one of the following assumptions applies to the scientific method?
a. Knowledge is always subjective.
b. Research findings can be manipulated to advance a good cause.
c. Truth is confirmed through faith.
d. Knowledge is acquired through observation.
85. "Duplication is the heart of good research." This means that
a. no findings can be taken seriously unless others can repeat the process and obtain the same results.
b. the researcher does the study twice under different conditions.
c. the research is published at least twice.
d. two sets of reviewers reach the same evaluation of the research.
86. Researchers should maintain objectivity. This means they should
a. stay away from topics in which they have a personal interest.
b. not accept funding.
c. clearly define the objects of their investigation.
d. not let personal and subjective views about the topic influence the observations or outcome.
87. The variable that helps to explain and predict the behavior of interest is known as the ____ variable.
88. A dependent variable is
a. the variable of cause.
b. a trial idea.
c. the variable to be explained.
d. the core concept.
89. The dependent variable in the hypothesis, "the closer a maquiladora is located to the U.S.-Mexican border, the higher the percentage of U.S. patriots working at the plant," is
a. maquilas distance to the U.S.-Mexican border.
b. percentage of U.S. expatriates working at the plant.
c. U.S.-Mexican border.
d. number of workers at the plant.
90. A trial explanation put forward predicting a relationship between independent and dependent variables is a/an
91. ____ in the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem represent one of the most difficult issues of the peace process.
a. Israeli settlements
b. The high death rate
c. The rapidly increasing elderly population
d. The electrified fences
92. ____ refers to the environment or interaction experiences that make up every individual's life.
93. Nature refers to ____ and nurture refers to ____.
a. learned traits; inborn traits
b. genetic factors; environmental factors
c. interaction factors; biological factors
d. social capacities; biological potential
94. Perhaps the most outstanding feature of the human brain is its
95. The cases of Anna and Isabelle (two cases of extreme isolation) were used to illustrate
a. the importance of social contact to normal development.
b. the fact that humans are born with a great learning capacity.
c. that people are born with preconceived notions about standards of appearance and behavior.
d. that two-year olds are bothered when rules are violated.
96. George Herbert Mead wrote "it is impossible to conceive of a self arising outside of social experience." The statement emphasizes the importance of
97. Groups that are characterized by face-to-face contact and strong emotional ties among members are
a. intimate groups.
b. primary groups.
d. secondary groups.
98. Which of the following best describes ingroup-outgroup dynamics?
a. Ingroup members identify with the personal struggles of outgroup members.
b. The existence of an outgroup can unify attachments to ingroup members.
c. The presence of an outgroup can unify an ingroup even when the ingroup members are very different from one another.
d. Because they hate each other, members of an ingroup and outgroup usually find out a lot about one another.
99. ____ describes a state in which ties attaching the individual to others in the society are weak.
100. The emergence of self depends on our physiological capacity for reflexive thinking which is
a. the ability to step outside the self and observe and evaluate it from another's viewpoint.
b. the environment or interaction experiences beginning at birth.
c. the capacity to learn a spoken language.
d. the ability to recall memories stored in engrams.