ISM Exam #2

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ERP Core components

traditional components included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations; Accounting and finance, production and materials management, and human resource

ERP extended components

extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations; business intelligence, customer relationship management, supply chain management, and e-business

Customer relationship management CRM

- Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability

Supply Chain Management SCM

Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability

Middleware

several different types of software that sit in the middle of and provide connectivity between two or more software applications.

EAI Middleware

Represents a new approach t by packaging together commonly used functionality, such as providing prebuilt links to popular enterprise applications, which reduces the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors

collaboration systems

an IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of Information

structured

- involves shared participation in business processes such as workflow in which knowledge is hardcoded as rules (process collaboration)

unstructured collaboration

includes document exchange, shared whiteboards, discussion forums, and e-mail (information collaboration

content management system

provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment

SOX- Sarbanes Oxley

(ethics and security); defines which records must be stored

workplace monitoring

tracking people's activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, and number of transactions processed

legal

studying and analyzing right from wrong; good from bad (building blocks of successful business)

legality

the state or quality of being in conformity with the law

authentication

a method for confirming users' identities; Something the user knows, Something the user has, Something that is part of the user

encryption

- If there is an information security breach and the information was encrypted, the person stealing the information would be unable to read it

privacy

If there is an information security breach and the information was encrypted, the person stealing the information would be unable to read

confidentiality

. the assurance that messages and information are available only to those who are authorized to view them

information security policies

the protection of information from accidental or intentional misuse by persons inside or outside an organization

intellectual property

number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law

software piracy

unauthorized copying of software

counterfeit software

a type of software piracy that occurs when fake copies of software are produced in such a way that they appear to be authentic

social engineering

act of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information, rather than by breaking in or using technical cracking techniques

insiders

legitimate users who purposely or accidentally misuse their access to the environment and cause some kind of business-affecting incident

Information security lines of defense

People (information security policy & plan; 5 steps of security plan: Develop the information security policies, Communicate the information security policies, Identify critical information assets and risks, Test and reevaluate risks, Obtain stakeholder support) and Technology (3 primary info security areas- Authentication and authorization, Prevention and resistance, Detection and response)

spam

unsolicited e-mail (accounts for 40% to 60% of most organizations' email, and costs U.S. businesses over $14 billion in 2005)

prevention and resistance

downtime can be costly; Technologies available to help prevent and build resistance to attacks include: Content filtering, Encryption, Firewalls

firewall

- hardware and/or software that guards a private network by analyzing the information leaving and entering the network

data

Data is raw material & unorganized facts that need to be processed

information

When data are processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are called Information.

characteristics of high quality data

Accuracy, Completeness, Consistency, Uniqueness, Timeliness

redundant data

the duplication of information or storing the same information in multiple places (primary problem: inconsistency)

relational databases

maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses); stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tables

physical vs logical

deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device vs. focuses on how users logically access information

entity

a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored (The rows in each table contain the entities)

field or attribute

characteristics or properties of an entity class (The columns in each table contain the attributes)

purpose of a primary key- foreign key

a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table; a primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables

data warehouse

a logical collection of information - gathered from many different operational databases - that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks

data mining

the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone. Helps users uncover business intelligence

business intelligence

broad category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analyzing, and providing access to data to help enterprise users make better business decisions. BI applications include the activities of decision support systems, query and reporting, online analytical processing (OLAP), statistical analysis, forecasting, and data mining

ETL- Extract Transform Load

a process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse

drill down

move from summary information to detailed data by focusing in on something

slice and dice

is the ability to look at data warehouse information from different perspectives.

consolidation

the aggregation of information, and allows simple "roll-ups" (combinations) of interrelated information.

sensitivity analysis

the study of the impact that changes in one part of a model have on other parts of the model.

digital dashboard

integrates information from multiple components

intelligent agents

special-purposed knowledge-based information system that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users

AI (Artificial Intelligence) systems and their commercial applications

simulates human intelligence such as the ability to reason and learn; intelligent system- various commercial applications of artificial intelligence

neutral networks

- attempts to emulate the way the human brain works; Fuzzy logic - a mathematical method of handling imprecise or subjective information

generic algorithm

an artificial intelligent system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem

expert systems

computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems

Transaction Processing System TPS

basic business system that serves the operational level

Decision Support System DSS,

models information to support managers and business professionals during the decision-making process (models used: Sensitivity analysis, What-if analysis, Goal-seeking analysis)

Executive Information System EIS

a specialized DSS that supports senior level executives within the organization (consolidation, drill down, slice and dice)

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