Unit 4: Dates and Facts

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1588

Spanish Armada (date)

1555

Peace of Augsburg (date)

Sea Beggars

Dutch "_____;" a.k.a. Dutch Pirates

Sea Dogs

English "____;" a.k.a. English Pirates-- Spanish Armada-- Francis Drake

Duke of Parma

the next Spanish leader who arrived in the Netherlands and played on the Dutch religious differences; split their united front

Parliament Tradition

the tradition established by the Tudor dynasty; Elizabeth I made the body important by continuously meeting with them

Charles V

Abdication (give up the throne of)--1556 after the tiring problems with the French, the Turks, the papacy, and the political issues in Germany

Francis Xavier

major Jesuit-- diffused Catholicism to India and China

Henry II

last strong Valois king

Henry III

killed Henry, duke of Guise; eventually killed by crazed monk---that's not wierd at all

Henry of Guise

killed by Henry III

Henry IV

also known as Henry of Navarre; Bourbon dynasty; became king of France after the War of Three Henries; "Paris is well-worth a Mass"

Prudent King

nickname given to Philip II-- cautious-- never delegated his powers to anyone-- afraid that they would make mistakes

Battle of Lepanto

The ______; battle between Philip II and the Turks (1571); major victory for the Spanish-- defeated the great Ottoman Empire-- victory in the Mediterranean

Philip II

blinded by love; Elizabeth I manipulated him into thinking that once she stablized England, she would marry him; unfortunately in this story, "love" does not conquer all

Virgin Queen

nickname of Elizabeth I-- never married-- misogyny-- if she married, the king would become the true ruler, not the queen

Theocracy

government ruled by religious leaders and laws

Henry VIII

"defender of faith;" denied his annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon by Pope Clement VII

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