What is a simple carbohydrate
Sugars with a simple structure of one or two single-sugar (saccharide) units. A monosaccharide is composed of one sugar unit; a disaccharide is composed of two sugar units.
What is a complex carbohydrate
Large, complex molecules of carbohydrates composed of many sugar units (polysaccharides). Complex forms of dietary carbohydrates are starch, which is digestible and provides a major energy source, and dietary fiber, which is indigestible (human beings lack the necessary enzymes) and thus provides important bulk in the diet.
State the kilocalories per gram of carbohydrates
1 carb = 4 kcal/g
State why most carbohydrates in the diet should come from complex carbohydrates.
It steadily releases a supply of energy over time.
What is non-nutritive sweeteners.
Artificial sweeteners in food
Several hundred times sweeter than sucrose
Do not provide any kcal/g
What is nutritive sweeteners
Sugar alcohols (Sorbitol, Mannitol, Xylitol)
Absorb more slowly and increase the blood sugar more slowly than glucose
Hard to breakdown
Provide 2-3 kcal/g
Starting with the mouth describe the digestion of carbohydrates, including structures, enzymes and end products.
Mouth: enzymes break down nutrients into still smaller usable metabolic products
Stomach: gastric secretions facilitate chemical digestion
Pancreas: Pancreatic amylase breaks starches in to disaccharides and monosaccharides.
Intestinal secretions: sucrose, lactose, and maltase act on disaccharides to render monosaccharide's ready for absorption
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth
Mechanical, but not chemical, digestion takes place in the stomach
Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine