history test 2
|The Committee on Public Information||April 13, 1917 also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. The committee used newsprint, posters, radio, telegraph, cable and movies to broadcast its message. It recruited about 75,000 "Four Minute Men," volunteers who spoke about the war at social events for an ideal length of four minutes, considering that the average human attention span was judged at the time to be four minutes.|
|National Recovery Administration||the nra in 1933 aimed directly at controlling competition between companies. Nra chief as well as representatives from government and also labor and consumer groups drew codes of fair practices. the codes established minimum prices, minimum wages and maximum hours.In 1935, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously declared that the NRA was unconstitutional, ruling that it infringed the separation of powers under the United States Constitution.|
|Great Black Migration||The Great Migration was the movement of 2 million blacks out of the Southern United States to the Midwest, Northeast and West from 1910 to 1930. African Americans migrated to escape racism and to seek jobs in industrial cities.Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population. More than 80 percent lived in cities. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West|
|Trench Warfare||Troops in ww1 dug ditches, six to eight feet deep and four to five feet wide, to escape bullets, grenades, and artillery. Twenty-five thousand miles of trenches slashed a muddy scar across europe. Men lived in there for years, prey to disease, lice and a plague of rats.|
|Immigration Act of 1924||Reduced cap to 150,000. Also changed the quota calculation. Relied on the 1890 census because immigrants were now coming from Eastern and Southern Europe. African Americans and Asians were entirely excluded from the calculations. People from Africa and Asia were forbidden to enter the United States. The purpose was to restrict the number of immigrants to prevent nation from becoming more diverse than is already was.|
|Flappers||Flapper girls became a popular style in the 1920s. Women cut their hair into short bobs, wore slinky dresses that were hemmed to reveal their legs, more make up, smoked in public and also bound their breasts to deemphasize their maternal role. Disregarded traditional social conventions. They were a symbol of liberation for women. Birth control was also instilled during the 1920s. This provided women with a sense of self worth and freedom|
|Consumer culture||Individual derive a large part of happiness and sense of their identity of what they buy and own. The buying and owning of goods shapes the values of society. During the 19th century they way of life was to save money. Mike from Out of this Furnace saved and put his money into banks, but Dobie didn't, he spent his money as fast as he earned it. This was a huge societal shift. Industries developed whose primary purpose is to get people to buy thins. Influenced by the media. Also the prevalence and significance of brand name products. Gross national product. During the 1920s gross national product increased 4.2% per year. Wages went up significantly. Rapid economical growth. Assembly line productions such as Ford Motor Company. Consumer culture is easily accessible and played significant role in disintegrating cultural differences.|
|Bonus Army||In 1931 WW1 veterans were hungry and looking for cash in the bonus certificates they were promised from Congress in 1924 as a reward for wartime services. They marched to Washington DC to protest and by the time they reached DC there was about 20,000 veterans pounding on the doors of the President. Hoover dismissed them as a special interest lobby and refused to see their leader. But the House voted to pay them immediately. Most left but about 2,000 stayed then Hoover called the US army unter Commander of Chief of State General Douglas. A small riot erupted and 300 veterans were wounded. Unarmed and unemployed vets being attacked by US troops soured most Americans.|
|Japanese Internment||Federal government determined that the people of Japanese ancestry living in the US needed to be imprisoned for the safety of the US. Some spend 4 years in these internment camps. 2/3 of 120,000 (80,000) were US citizens. This was a vast majority of Japanese living in the US. They were imprisoned because their racial identity would cause suspicion. Racial discrimination was alive and well during the war.|
|Hoover's Associationalism||Hoover revolutionized the relations between business and government. Rejecting the adversarial stance of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, he sought to make the Commerce Department a powerful service organization, empowered to forge cooperative voluntary partnerships between government and business. This philosophy is often called "associationalism".|
|Total war||In the middle 19th Century, "total war" was identified by scholars as a separate class of warfare. In a total war, there is less differentiation between combatants and civilians than in other conflicts, and sometimes no such differentiation at all, as nearly every human resource, civilians and soldiers alike, can be considered to be part of the belligerent effort.|
|Ku Klux Klan||The Klan, is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism. Since the mid-20th century, the KKK has also been anti-communist. The current manifestation is splintered into several chapters and is classified as a hate group.|
|Social Security Act||The Social Security Act of 1935 sought to help those who could not help themselves, the aged, the poor, the infirm, dependent children. There were 3 major provisions:|
Old Age Pension: Pensions for retires peoples over the age of 65. Monthly payments to elderly Americans.
Unemployment Insurance: If you lost your job and had no income insurance would make payments while unemployed.
AFC (aid for families with children): government would provide money for poor families with children who couldn't provide for them.
|Sedition Act||The Sedition Act outlawed criticism of the government and opposition of the war. Outlawed free speech. Federal government used it to arrest thousands of citizens that expressed opposition to the war and the draft. Eugene V. Debs was sentenced to 10 years in prison for speaking out against the government. In MT 47 people were imprisoned. The IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) were attacked which inevitably destroyed the Union. The consequences were it coerced immigrants to abandon outward signs of their culture. And it severely weakened leftist political radicals from voicing opposition.|