Biology Chapters 15-16

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vestigial structures

In whales, the pelvis and femur are

Wallace's essay on evolution

Why was Darwin prompted to publish his theory of evolution

observations of many species in their geographical location

Darwin began to formulate his theory of evolution after

variations best suited to the environment

According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have

a detailed record of evolution

Charles Darwin viewed the fossil record as what

a change in a population's allele frequencies

One similarity between natural selection and genetic drift is that both events

somewhat similar species, with traits that suited their particular environments

On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed

natural variations that are present in a species

When farmers select animals or plants to use for breeding, they look for what

directional selection

When individuals at only one end of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness, the result is what

many possible genotypes, producing many possible phenotypes

A polygenic trait can have what

100 percent

In a population, the sum of the relative frequencies of all alleles for a particular trait is equal to what

geographic isolation

The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called what

natural variation and natural selection

Darwin's theory of evolution is based on what ideas

survival of the fittest

When lions prey on a herd of antelopes, some antelopes are killed and some escape. What part of Darwin's concept of natural selection might be used to describe this situation

birds' different-shaped beaks

The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the

the actions of organisms as they use or fail to use body structures

Lamarck's theory of evolution includes the concept that new organs in a species appear as a result of what

genetic drift

What event do biologists consider a random change

directional selection (18)

In Rosemary and Peter Grant's study of the Galápagos finches, what process was encouraged by ecological competition during the dry season

phenotypes

Natural selection acts directly on

preserved remains of ancient organisms

People of Charles Darwin's time understood that fossils were

prevents interbreeding between the populations

The geographic isolation of two populations of a species tends to increase differences between their gene pools because it does what

temporal isolation

What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plants whose flowers open late in the day

inheritance of acquired characteristics

In each generation, the wings of experimental fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on what

body structure can change according to the actions of the organism

What is a major concept included in Lamarck's theory of evolution

he was disturbed by its findings, which challenged fundamental scientific beliefs

Why might Darwin have hesitated to publish his concept of evolution by natural selection

species change over time

Darwin's theory of evolution suggests that

originated from a common ancestor

Charles Darwin's observation that finches of different species on the Galápagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finches

a common ancestor

The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. Most biologists would probably explain this fact on the basis of

a process of change of change in species over time

Define evolution by natural selection

physical or behavioral

An adaptation is an inherited characteristic that can be

On the Origin of Species

In 1859, Charles Darwin published his revolutionary scientific ideas in a work with this title

chance events

This is not a way in which natural selection affects the distribution of phenotypes

crossing-over

Gene shuffling includes the independent movement of chromosomes during meiosis as well as what

two phenotypes

A single-gene trait that has two alleles and that shows a simple dominant-recessive pattern will result in how many phenotypes

two species do not interbreed because of temporal isolation

American toad breeds earlier in the spring than the Fowler's toad. The reason for this is

they are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment

Statement consistent to theory of natural selection

mating that is not random

disturbs equilibrium in a large population

possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness

Individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the

transmission of acquired characteristics

This concept is not included in modern theory of evolution

arrival of founding population

first step that occurred in the speciation of the Galapagos finches

disruptive selection

One group of birds has short, parrotlike beak. Another has a long, narrow beak. What happened

Thomas Malthus

The idea that only famine, disease, and war could prevent the endless growth of human populations was presented by who

75 percent

If an allele makes up one fourth of a population's alleles for a given trait, its relative frequency is

Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred

James Hutton and Charles Lyell's work was important to Darwin because these scientists suggested that what

knowledge about the structure of DNA

Darwin's concept of evolution was not influenced by what

a large population size

The genetic equilibrium of a population cannot be disturbed by a what

James Hutton

One scientist who attempted to explain how rock layers form and change over time was who

Earth is very old

What did Charles Darwin learn from reading the work of James Hutton and Charles Lyell

Whether the mutation makes some lizards more fit for their environment than other lizards

If a mutation introduces a new skin color in a lizard population, which factor might determine whether the frequency of the new allele will increase

Natural selection on beak size and shape is driven by available food

True statement about evolution in Galapagos finches

chance

In genetic drift, allele frequencies change because of what

gene shuffling during gamete formation

In many kinds of organisms, inheritable differences are due mostly to what

fewer phenotypes

Compared to a polygenic trait, a single-gene trait tends to have

share a common ancestor with sea stars

Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates

gene pool

The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population is the population's

gene shuffling and mutations

The two main sources of genetic variation are

no changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool

Interbreeding among members of a population results in what

no movement into or out of population

One of the conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium

have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed that organisms

all mating is random

The allele frequencies of a population are more likely to remain unchanged if

the founder effect

The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals

widow's peak in humans

An example of a single-gene trait is

homologous structures such as wings and arms

The same kinds of cells that grow in similar patterns in different but related organisms produce

Finches prefer mates with similar in size to their own

What did Peter and Rosemary Grant learn about mate choice from the Galapagos finches

mutation

A change in a sequence of DNA is called a what

genetic equilibrium

The situation in which allele frequencies of a population remain constant is called what

Earth is many millions of years old

James Hutton's and Charles Lyell's work suggests that what

on the Galapagos Islands

During his voyage on the Beagle, Charles Darwin made many observations

past geological events must be explained in terms of processes observable today

In the 1800s, Charles Lyell emphasized that

many different phenotypes

In a particular population, sexual reproduction can produce what

inherited traits are passed from parent to offspring

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution does not explain how

the changes in the inherited characteristics of a population

This statement best describes the result of natural selection

the number of genes that control the trait

The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends upon what

there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population

The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that

More offspring are produced than can possibly survive

This statement agrees with Darwin's theory of evolution

could be generalized to any population of organisms

Darwin realized that the economist Malthus' theory of population control

does not change the gene pool's allele frequencies

The gene shuffling that occurs as part of sexual reproduction

they contain two or more alleles for each inheritable trait

True statement about gene pools

are small

Genetic drift tends to occur in populations that

Charles Darwin

The hypothesis that species change over time by natural selection was proposed by whom

selective breeding (not natural selection)

Artificial selection as practiced by farmers is also called what

random mating (not directional selection)

In a population of birds, if females prefer males with long tails, the population violates the condition of what described by the Hardy-Weinberg principle

a few thousand

In Charles Darwin's time, many people thought that Earth and its living things were formed about how many years ago

fitness

What term refers to an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment

directional (not disruptive)

In a population of snakes with a range of body lengths, if the longest individuals have the highest fitness, what type of selection is likely to occur

behavioral

Two populations that have overlapping ranges can remain reproductively isolated through what type of isolation or temporal isolation from temporal isolation

gene shuffling (not mutations)

Most inheritable differences are due to mutations that occur during the production of gametes

common descent (not natural variation)

According to the what concept, living and extinct species evolved from the same ancestors

compete for (not share)

According to Charles Darwin, members of a species must do what with their limited resources

Natural selection

What on single-gene traits can lead to changes in allele frequencies

fitness (not selection)

According to Darwin, what word would be applied to organisms adapted to survive and reproduce in their particular environments

evolution

In 1858, Alfred Russel Wallace sent Charles Darwin an essay proposing an explanation for what that was very similar to Darwin's

single-gene (not polygenic)

What type of trait is controlled by one gene

polygenic (not single-gene)

On a graph, the distribution of phenotypes for what type of trait tends to form a bell-shaped curve

descent with modification

The fact that species today look different from their ancestors can be described as what

geographic (not behavioral)

In the what type of reproductive isolation are two populations are separated by barriers such as rivers or mountains

marine fossils

Evidence that the surface of a mountain was once under the sea includes the presence of what on the mountain

small

In what sized populations, an allele can become more or less common simply by chance

reproduce

According to Charles Darwin, individuals best suited to their environment survive and do what most successfully

equilibrium (not variation)

When mutations introduce new alleles into a population, genetic what is disrupted

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