energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, are NOT soluble in water(hydrophobic).
A chemical indicator that turns clear in acid and pink in base.
used to measure one specific volume. mostly used in mixing solutions where a one liter or one half a liter is measured, Useful in making standard solutions.
A substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance, MUST be added at the beginning of the tritration. Example: Phenolphthalein, methyl red, bro-methyl blue.
solutions in which water is the solvent.
Mixture that is the same throughout(a solution)
Defined an acid as a substances that produces H+ ions (protons) when dissolved in H20, and Bases as substances that produce OH- ions in solution. He also came up with the Ion Theory of electrical Conductivity.
measuring instrument consisting of a graduated glass tube with a tap at the bottom, what you use to carry the tritrant to the solution.
Also called a redox reaction,, any chemical change in which one species loses electrons and another gains electrons.
not uniform; made up of different parts
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
Water is a ____________. This means that it has an unequal charge distribution. The oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen.
δ+ or δ-, Measures the fractional charges in polar molecules, oxygen is 2δ- and each hydrogen is δ+.
The clustering of water molecules around charged and partially charged solute molecules, the 2 hydrogen with a charge of δ+ would be attracted to an ionic solids ANION, while the oxygen with a 2δ- charge would be attracted to the cation. This leads to the breakdown of the ionic solid into individual cations and ions.
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure, Depends on both the solute and the solvent.
Very important characteristic for characterizing a solution, the ability to conduct an electric current.
Substance that dissociates completely into its ions when added to water and conducts electricity well.
A compound of which a relatively small amount of the dissolved solute exists as ions in an aqueous solution. Example: Acetic acid, CH3COOH (vinegar), weak current.
Solutions in which there is no electric current(no electrical conductivity). Example: Glucose
Latin word for "sour", where the word acid gets its name. For Example : H2SO4, HNO3, HCl.
Remember that Acids and bases have to be written (aq) because they exist as ____________.
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, dissociate completely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution, are strong electrolytes along with Strong Acids, and soluble salts
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4, acids that dissociate completely and irreversibly in water, Strong Bases, and soluble salts
concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent
A solution whose concentration is accurately known, often used in chemical analysis.
A process that involves adding water to stock solutions to acheive the desired molarity.
a highly concentrated form of a solution used in laboratories to make less concentrated solutions via dilution
A device that accurately measures and transfers a given volume of solution. There are two types , measuring and volumetric.
Piece of laboratory glassware used to measure one small, fixed volumes, generally ranging from 1 mL to 25 mL, with a high degree of accuracy. One of the two types of pipets. Has the calibration mark.
A graduated pipet that can be used to measure several volumes accurately.
A reaction in which two solutions react to form an insoluble solid, which separates from the solution. The solid that forms is called the precipitate.
Acid Base Reaction
When an acid and base mix together, neutralize one another's properties, and form a salt.
a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture in a precipitation reaction.
negatively charged ions, usually gases especially in ionic solids.
positively charged ions, usually metals especially in ionic solids.
ions that are present in a solution in which a reaction is taking place but that do not participate in the reaction, not included in the net ionic equations.
Complete Ionic Equation
an ionic equation that shows all the particles in a solution as they realistically exist.
a representation of the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols or formulas.
a basic substance; chemically, a substance that absorbs hydrogen ions or releases hydroxyl ions; in reference to natural water, a measure of the base content of the water.
Net Ionic Equation
An equation that includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution
The_________ - ________definition of acids and bases , an acid is a proton donor , and a base is a proton acceptor.
determination of the volume of gases (or changes in their volume) during combination
Also called the stoichiometric point, the point in which enough titrant(substance added) has been added to react exactly with the anylate(substance being analyzed). Is often marked by an indicator.
a solution of known concentration that is used to titrate a solution of unknown concentration
substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods
The point where the inicator actually changes color, DO not confuse with the Equivalence point.
the reaction of the ions that characterize acids (hydronium ions) and the ions that characterize bases (hydroxide ions) to form water molecules and a salt
Also called oxidation numbers, they provide a way to keep track of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions, defined in a covalent compound as the imaginary charge the atoms would have if the shared electrons where evenly divided between identical atoms bonded to each other, or were assigned to the atoms in each bond that has the greater attraction for electrons. (Pg. 155)
An increase in the oxidation state, so a LOSS of electrons
A decrease in the oxidation state, so a GAIN of electrons.
The electron donor in a redox reaction.
The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
the two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction