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Mnemonic to remember the cranial nerves (from most anterior and according to their number)
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Mnemonic to remember which cranial nerves are Motor, Sensory, or Both.
The optic nerves enter the optic foramen of the sphenoid bone and then converge to form the ___, just superior to the sella turcica and pituitary gland.
Just the ___ nerves cross at the chiasma to the opposite side of the brain.
The surgical removal of the pituitary gland. Only done nowadays if someone has a pituitary tumor (not for breast or prostate cancer)
Caused when a pituitary tumor grows superiorly, exerting sufficient pressure on the center of the optic chiasma. Blindness in the temporal field of vision in both eyes.
Produces certain extrinsic and intrinsic movements of the eyeball. Originates in the mesencephalon and passes to the eye via the superior orbital fissure of the sphenoid bone.
Innervates the muscles that constrict the pupil, and the muscles that change the shape of the lens for focusing.
Loss of function
On the same side of the head as the injury
When the optic nerve/retina gets pushed/squished into the back of the eye (or something like that). Observable by funduscopic examination.
Shining a light in the eye to see the back of the eye. Means looking into the narrow portion of a funnel-type structure. Papilledemas can be seen this way.
Controls downward and lateral movement of the eyeball. In a cool pulley system.
Opthalmic, maxillary, mandibular
Three branches of the trigeminal nerve
Photic sneeze reflex
Sneezing from the light because the nerves of the opthalmic and maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve are either too close or are cross-wired.
Masseter, temporalis, medial and lateral pterygoids
Muscles that the trigeminal nerve innervates and has motor functions in.
Innervates one of the extrinsic muscles of the eye that moves the eye laterally.
Motor functions: Facial expression (epicranius, buccinators, obicularis oris, ans platysma) and salivary glands.
Sensory: The chemoreceptors for sweet on the anterior of the tongue.
One branch responsible for monitoring equilibrium and balance, and the other branch is responsible for hearing.
The branch of CN VII responsible for monitoring equilibrium and balance.
The branch of CN VII responsible for the sense of hearing.
Motor functions: Stimulate the swallowing reflex and the secretion of saliva by the parotid gland.
Sensory functions: Back portion of the tongue (bitter), carotid sinus in the arteries of the neck
Latin for "wandering"
Longest of the cranial nerves and the only one to leave the confines of the head and neck.
Motor: Most of the pharynx (throat) muscles and larynx (voice box) muscles.
Sensory: External auditory canal and eardrum, pharynx, larynx, heart, lungs, esophagus, abdominal organs (with the exception of the lower portion of the large intestines)
Cranial root: Innervates pharynx muscles that contract reflexively during swallowing.
Spinal root: Innervates the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoids.
Motor only. Innervates the muscles of the tongue itself and some nearby muscles that help move the tongue.