APUSH Vocab: Great Depression 26-53

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Huey Long (The Kingfish)

Nickname "Kingfish"; Senator of Louisiana. He pushed his "Share Our Wealth" program, which would make "Every Man a King". Long planned to run against FDR in the 1936 elections, but he was assassinated.

"Share the Wealth"

The ________________ society was founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor Gerald K. Smith lacked the ability to be a strong head of the society.

"The Second New Deal"

Created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and expressed in his State of the Union Address in January 1935, ___________________ focused on and enlarged the federal program to incorporate the jobless, to help the unemployed receive jobs, to give assistance to the rural poor, organized labor, and social welfare. Roosevelt wanted to levy heavier taxes on the rich, create harder regulations on businesses, and to incorporate social-welfare benefits.

Harry Hopkins

The head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). A friend and advisor to President FDR. He was very involved in reforms in the Great Depression and in the 30's and 40's in such issues as unemployment and mortgages.

Election of 1936

candidates, issues: The candidates included Franklin D. Roosevelt from the Democratic Party, Alfred M. Landon from the Republican party, and William Lemke from the Union Party. The principal issue was how to exploit the New Deal's popularity. In the end, FDR won in a landslide victory.

Alf Landon

was the republican candidate in 1936. This honest and wealthy man from Kansas lost greatly to the Democrat Franklin Roosevelt. He had stressed balancing the budget.

"Court-packing plan"

This proposal was announced by Franklin D. Roosevelt allowing the president to appoint new Supreme Court members for each one over 70 years of age, totaling six in all. After Chief Justice Evan Hughes' leadership in expressing their disapproval in this plan, Congress and the American people disapproved of the action as well. This resulted in some New Dealers leaving the president's side and humiliated President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

"Roosevelt recession"

Although the economy improved in 1936 and early 1937, it once again fell back in mid 1937, when industrial production and steel output declined, and unemployment statistics increased. Some of the major factors of this recession were federal policies that greatly reduced consumer income.

Scottsboro Boys

nine black teenaged boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident deal with racism and a basic American right: the Right to a fair trial. The case includes a frameup, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice.

Harlem riots of 1935

Harlem's first race riot, sparked off by rumors of the beating of a teenage shoplifter. Three died, hundreds were wounded and an estimated $2 million in damages were sustained to properties throughout the district, with African-American owned homes and businesses spared the worst of the destruction.

"Black Cabinet"

first known as the Federal Council of Negro Affairs, an informal group of African-American public policy advisors to United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was supported by the first lady Eleanor Roosevelt. By mid-1935, there were 45 African Americans working in federal executive departments and New Deal agencies.

A. Philip Randolph

a prominent twentieth-century African-American civil rights leader and the founder of both the March on Washington Movement and the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a landmark for labor and particularly for African-American labor organizing. He was one of several Black atheists involved in the civil rights movement

Mary McLeod Bethune

an American educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida, that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University and for being an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Marian Anderson

an African-American contralto and one of the most celebrated singers of the twentieth century. When the all-white Daughters of the Revolution refused for her to sing at a concert, Eleanor Roosevelt set up a concert for her to sing at on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.

Dust Bowl and Okies

"______" were poor farmers who moved west to California and Arizona during the 1930s or moved to the crowded cities. This occurred because after two generations of a melange of drought and poor farming techniques these areas, also known as "_______," once fertile land, became waste areas and unusable.

The Grapes of Wrath

__________ written by Steinbeck in 1939 illustrates the plight of a dust bowl family.

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

Originally formed by leaders within the AFL who wanted to expand its principles to include workers in mass production industries. In 1935, they created coalation of the 8 unions comprising the AFL and the United Mine Workers of America, led by John L. Lewis. After a split within the organization in 1938, the CIO was established as a separate entity.

John Lewis and United Mine Workers (UMW)

This union was created by militant leader John L. Lewis in 1890; its methods, based on his stands on increases in pay, safer working conditions, and political stands, reflect Lewis' military style. In 1935 it had about 250,000 members out of which Lewis co-founded the CIO.

Eleanor Roosevelt

The first strong first lady who supported civil rights.

Indian Reorganization Act (1934)

was a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include activities that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations

Federal Arts Project

the visual arts arm of the Great Depression-era New Deal Works Progress Administration Federal One program in the United States. It operated from August 29, 1935, until June 30, 1943. Reputed to have created more than 200,000 separate works, ____ artists created posters, murals and paintings. Some works still stand among the most-significant pieces of public art in the country.

Federal Music Project

part of the Federal government of the United States New Deal program Federal One, employed musicians, conductors and composers during the Great Depression. People in the music world had been particularly hard-hit by the era's economic downturn. In addition to performing thousands of concerts, offering music classes, organizing the Composers Forum Laboratory, hosting music festivals and creating 34 new orchestras, employees of the ____ researched American traditional music and folk songs, a practice now called ethnomusicology.

Federal Writers' Project

a United States federal government project to fund written work and support writers during the Great Depression. It was part of the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program. It was one of a group of New Deal arts programs known collectively as Federal One.

Federal Theatre Project

New Deal project to fund theatre and other live artistic performances in the United States during the Great Depression. It was one of five Federal One projects sponsored by the Works Progress Administration (WPA). The _____'s primary goal was employment of out-of-work artists, writers, and directors, with the secondary aim of entertaining poor families and creating relevant art.

Aaron Copland

an American classical composer, composition teacher, writer, and later in his career a conductor of his own and other American music. He was instrumental in forging a distinctly American style of composition, and is often referred to as "the Dean of American Composers.".He is best known to the public for the works he wrote in the 1930s and 40s in a deliberately more accessible style than his earlier pieces, including the ballets Appalachian Spring, Billy the Kidd, Rodeo and his Fanfare for the Common Man.

Zora Neale Hurston

an American folklorist, anthropologist, and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance. Of _____'s four novels and more than 50 published short stories, plays, and essays, she is best known for her 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God.

Richard Wright

was an American author of powerful, sometimes controversial novels, short stories and non-fiction. Much of his literature concerns racial themes. His work helped redefine discussions of race relations in America in the mid-20th century.

John Dos Passos

Considered one of the Lost Generation writers, ____ published his first novel in 1920, One Man's Initiation: 1917. It was followed by an antiwar story, Three Soldiers, which brought him considerable recognition. His 1925 novel about life in New York City, titled Manhattan Transfer, was a commercial success and introduced experimental stream-of-consciousness techniques into _____'s method. These ideas also coalesced into the U.S.A. Trilogy (see below), of which the first book appeared in 1930. He also opposed Communism and FDR.

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