Ordering of Life in the Biosphere Worksheet (chapter 10)

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define classification

grouping of organisms into related groups. demonstrating evolutionary relations

what is another name for classification

taxonomy, cladistics

what language are scientific names usually based on?

Latin

sometimes, scientific names may be ____ or_______ instead of Latin

Greek or latinized

why dont scientists around the world just use more simple, common names for organisms

scientific names are consistent.

who was the first taxonomist and developed the naming system we use today?

Carl von Linne (Carolus Linnaeus)

What 2 kingdoms did Carolus group organisms into?

Plants and animals

What is Linnaeus's naming system called?

binomial nomenclature

explain binomial nomenculture

2 name naming system
1st genus
2nd species

How do scientific names appear in print

underlined or italicized. Genus is capitalized

what were the problems with the Scientific names prior to Linnaeus

long and unwieldy

name the 9 taxon in order from broadest to most specific

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

what is the newest and broadest taxon

Domain

Instead of the taxon phylum, what other taxon is used for plants at this level?

division

what is the most specific taxon

species

A family is composed of a number of related ________

genus

how many domains are there

3

name the three domains

Archaea
Eubacteria
Eukarya

What are the main characteristics of Archaea and Eubacteria

Prokaryotes (no membrane bound organelles, small, no nucleus, single celled)

what are the main characteristics of the Domain Eukarya

Eukaryote (membrane bound organelles, nucleus, large, more recent development)

What is thought to be true about the three domains of living things?

Archaea and Eubacteria diverged prior to the evolution of Eukarya

Where to the Archaea live?

extreme environments

Where are eubacteria found

everywhere (not extreme or steril)

List the 4 kingdoms of Eukarya

Animalia
Fungi
Protista
Plantae

Which 2 kingdoms contain all multicellular members?

Animalia
Plantae

What is a slang name for the kingdom protista and why is this name appropriate

junk drawer

Microscopic organisms found in pond water are most likely in the kingdom ______

protista

all membranes of the kingdom fungi are _____ except for unicellular ______

multicellular, yeast

Describe the primary characteristics of fungi?

heterotrophs

The cell walls of fungi are made of ____

chitin

members of the kingdom plantae are all ______ and _____

multicellular, autotrophs

Plant cell walls are made of _____

cellulose

animals are _____ and ______that lack ______

multicellular, heterotrophs, a cell wall

a genera may contain a number of different ______

species

what genera doesnt contain a number of different species

homo

List three examples of things used as a basis for modern taxonomy

molecular homologies
structural homologies
biochemical homologies

what are homologous structures?

anatomical structures that are similar

what are the advantages and disadvantages of using structural homologies

advantage: used for fossils
disadvantage: look similar but aren't the same therefor can be misleading leads to convergent evolution

At the molecular level, similarities in ____, _____, or the _____ ______ sequence of proteins can be a basis for grouping organisms together

DNA, RNA, amino acids

how mights we come to understanding the relatedness of two very dissimilar organisms such as a cow and a yeast

DNA similarities

what is a cladogram?

tree of life, demonstrates evolutionary relationships

what is a derived characteristic

an evolutionary innovation,
something new, a new trait emerging

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