Chapter 24 and 26 Identifications AP European

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Triple Entente

Alliance between Britain, France, and Russia

Triple Alliance

Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy

The July Crisis

crisis started with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and ultimately spiraled into WWI

Francis Ferdinand

Archduke of Austria, assassination in Sarajevo

Schlieffan Plan

Germany's two prong attack plan take France first then attack Russia

Battle of the Marne

the most strategically important battle of WWI, started the tactic of trench warfare. Germany vs. Britain and France

trench warfare

this type of warfare was introduced in the battle of the Marne, where troops literally dug themselves in the ground

Gallipoli

the Allies attempted a land invasion at this peninsula in April 1915, the Turks defended the coast and the Allies were defeated

Verdun

a German attack on this French stronghold, this place became a symbol of France's strength, they would defend at all costs

The Somme

a British offensive against Germany at this place, British were bombarded by wire and machine gun fire

Edmund Allenby

British commander in Egypt and Palestine, he led a multi-nationality army against the Turks

T.E. Lawrence

A British officer who popularized Arab's guerilla actions, he is entered in popular mythology as "Lawrence of Arabia"

Easter Rebellion

this was a rebellion that broke out on Easter Sunday of 1919 in Dublin and was quickly crushed by the British

Rasputin

spiritual mentor and faith healer to tsar Nicholas' wife

February Revolution

a revolt that began on women;s day, February 23, where Russian citizens demanded food, fuel, and political reform

Vladimir Lenin

leader of the bolshevik splinter party in Russia, he was a young dedicated revolutionary. His real name was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov

October Revolution

October 1917 uprising in russia led by lenin and the Bolsheviks to overthrow the provisional Russian government, withdrew Russia from WWI, establish one-party Bolshevik state

Brest-Liotovsk

this was a treaty between Russia's new Bolshevik government and Germany. Russia ceded mass territory

Versailles Treaty

this treaty ended WWI, it forced Germany to pay reparations and to give up its colonies to the victors

League of Nations

international organization founded after WWI to solve international disputes through arbitration, one of Wilson's 14 Points, it was dissolved in 1946

appeasement

grounded in three assumptions, provoking another war was unthinkable, Germany had been mistreated at Versailles and grievances should be acknowledged, and many of the people for this were anticommunist

Spanish Civil War

this civil war was started due to the weak government's inability to overcome opposition. Many European countries intervened and Franco won in the end

Munich Conference

1938 conference between Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier, and mussolini. Here they bargained out a major piece of Czech

Blitzkrieg

"lightening war" Germany's strategy during WWII

Dunkirk

French port on the English channel where France and Britain retreated after heavy losses against German military

Vichy

French collaborationist government whose call to order was "Work, family, and country"

Free French

group in France led by Charles de Gaulle

Battle of Britain

in this battle the Germans dropped millions of tons of bombs on Britain targets

Winston Churchill

British prime minister after Chamberlain, he spoke words of courage and defiance when public needed it most

Erwin Rommel

a German man who led and elite armored force called the Afrika Corps

William Slim

and Indian army officer, he fought back Japanese troops

Operation Barbarossa

code name for Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union

Einsatzgruppen

"death squads" who had killed 85,000 people by 1941, mostly jews

Strategic Bombing

used by the US and Britain, they strategically planned where to drop bombs for best effect without killing too many citizens

Enrico Fermi

an Italian physicist who built the worlds first nuclear reactor

J. Robert oppenheimer

physicist who led the Manhattan project, he developed the first atomic bomb

Stalingrad

russian capital under Stalin, when it was under Lenin it was Leningrad. Site of decisive Russian victory

Grigorii Zhukov

Russian general who launched major offensive in the Ukraine, he ground down German resistance in Poland

Battle of the Bulge

Germany's last effort to regain power in WWII, they did well, but did not win

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

sites where the US dropped the atomic bomb

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