Reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols
NaBH4 is more selective
aldehyde or ketone + alcohol
strong acid (trace)
Oxidation of aldehydes
Aldehyde or Ketone + H2NR
H3O+ (dilute strong acid) or -OH
Aldehyde or Ketone + HNR2
H3O+ (dilute strong acid)
Wolff-Kishner Reduction (Carbonyl to methylene)
ethylene glycol (solvent)
Clemmenson Reduction (Carbonyl to methylene)
Wittig Alkene Synthesis
Ph3P+(CH2)- (an ylid) + aldehyde or ketone
ylid Preparation (Sn2 reaction)
1. Ph3P + CH3X
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