chapter 11 cardiovascular system

74 terms by dmssol 

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pulmonary vein

carries blood from the lungs to the heart

valve

structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so blood flows in only one direction

vena cava

largest vein in the body superior and inferior vana cava return blood to the right atrium of the heart

arteries

carry blood away from heart, thick elastic wall. Blood pressure high and carry oxygenated blood to tissues. inner lining=endothelium

veins

thin walled vessels that carries blood from the body tissues and lungs back to heart. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow. They are thinner, blood pressure low, poorly oxygentated blood.

pulse

beat of the heart as felt through the wall of the arteries

septal defect

small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects)

vasoconstriction

narrowing of a vessel

tachycardia

condition of rapid heartbeat Faster than 100 bpm

thromophlebitis

phlebitis inflammation of vein with a clot

arteriole

carry oxygenated blood from arteries to the smallest blood vessels - capillaries. Arteries will branch into smaller and smaller arteries to arterioles.

atrium

one of two upper chambers of the heart, pumping chambers

aorta

largest artery in the body

heart block

failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)

mitral valve prolapse

improper closure of the valve between the left and right ventricular during systole

flutter

rapid but regular atrial or ventricular contractions

thrombotic occlussion

blockage of a vessel by a clot

coronary artery disease

blockage of the arteries surrounding the heart leading to ischemia

hypertensive heart disease

high blood pressure affecting the heart

coarctation of the aorta

congenital narrowing of large artery leading form the heart

congestive heart failure

inablitity of the heart to pump its required amount of blood

tetralogy of Fallot

congenital malformation involving four separate heart defects

raynaud disease

episodes of ischemia with pallor and numberness in fingers and toes caused by a temporary constriction of arteries in the skin

deep vein thrombosis

clot formation in a large vein, usually in the lower limbs

superior vena cava

brings oxygen-poor blood into the heart from the upper parts of the body

coronary arteries

blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle

mitral valvulitis

commonly associated with rheumaic fever, an inflammation disease caused by inadequate treatment of a streptococcal infection. An autoimmune reaction occurs, leading to inflammation and damage to heart valves.

valvuoplasty

a ballon-tipped catheter dialates a cardiac valve

sphygmomanometer

instrument to measure blood pressure

interatrial sepum

separates the two upper chambers (atria)

hemangioma

tumor of blood vessels is a benign self involving tumor (swelling ot growth) of endothelial cells, the cells that line blood vessels. Appears first week of life and resolves by age 10, common tumor in infants.

petechiae

small, pinpoint hemorrhages is small 1-2 mm red or purple spot on the body

embolus

floating blood clot or other material is any detached itinerant intravascular mass as carried by the circulation and capsule of clogging arterial capillary beds.

digoxin

drug used to reduce abnormal heart rhythms

ECG electrocardiography

recording of electricity flow through the heart

cardiac catherization

thin flexiable tube is guided into the heart via a vein or artery detects pressures and patterns of blood flow in the heart for diagnosis and treatment of heart conditions

High-density lipoprotein

H.D.L. high blood levels are associated with lower incidence of coronary artery disease C.A.D

thrombolytic therapy

drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis

aneurysm

widening or dilation of a blood vessels

secondary hypertension

the increase in pressure is caused by another associated lesion, such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or disease of the adrenal glands

essential hypertension

with no indentifiable cause Blood pressure in adults 140/90

pericardiocentisis

is a procedure that uses a needle to remove fluid from the pericardial sac, the tissue that surrounds the heart

palpitations

uncomfortable sensations in the chest from missed heartbeats

pulmonary artery

carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs from the heart

claudication

pain, tension and weakness in the limb after walking has begun

vegetations

lesions that form on heart valves after damage by infection

myocardial infarction

area of necrosis (tissue death in the heart muscle, heart attack)

ischemia

blood is held back from an area of the body

angina

chest pain resulting form insufficient oxygen being supplied to the muscle (ischemia)

endocardium

inner lining of heart a smooth layer of endothelial cells lines the interior of the heart and heart valves

murmur

abdominal heart sounds caused by improper closure of heart valves is murmur

hypercholesterolemia

high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream

phlebitis

inflammation of a vein

cyanosis

blusish discoloration of the skin owing to deficeient oxygen in the blood

atheroma

mass of yellowish plaque (fatty substance)

auscultation

listening with stethoscope, listening to internal organs

ventricle

one of two lower chamber of the heart

septum

wall or partition in the heart

diastole

relaxation phase of heartbeat

atrioventricular valves

valves betwen the atria and ventricles

sinoatrial node SA

pacemaker of heart. the current of electricity generated by the pacemaker causes the wall of aorta to contract and force blood into ventricles.

tricuspid valve

located between the right atrium and right ventricle, its has 3 (tri) leaflets or cusps

mitral valve

valve bewteen the left atrium and left ventricle, bicuspid valve

pericardium

double-layered membrane surrounding the heart. visceral pericardium, partietal pericarium, and pericardial cavity

systole

contraction phase of heartbeat

fibrillation

rapid, random, ineffectual and irregular contraction of the heart

myocardium

muscular, middle layer of heart wall its the thickest layer

cardiomypathy

disease condition of the heart muscle

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

arteriosclerosis

harding of arteries

atrioventricular node

the AV node immediately sends the excitation wave to a bundle of specialized muscle fibers called atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His

p wave

spread of excitation wave over the atria just before contraction

qrs

spread of excitation wave over the ventricles as the ventricles contract

t wave

electricty recovery and relaxation of ventricles

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