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adolescence

the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood

puberty

the period during which the sexual organs mature

growth spurt

starts around 11 for girls, boys taller by 13

primary sexual characteristics

characteristics associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body tha tdirectly relate to reproduction

secondary sexual characteristics

the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not directly involve th sex organs

eatly-maturing boys

tend to be more successful at athletics, more popular and have more positive self-concept; are more atp to have difficulties in school and are more likely to become involved in delinquency and substance abuse

early-maturing girls

early development may make them uncomfortable, may have to endure ridicule from their less mature classmates; sought after more as potential dates, popularity may enhance their self-concept; may not be psychologically or socially ready

late-maturing boys

at a disadvantage in sports, viewed as less attractive, small size effects social life, decline in self-concept; coping with these challenges makes them more assertive and insightfu, more creatively playful

late-maturing girls

may be overlooked in dating at first, have low social status; by 10th grade have more satisfaction with their bodies, more apt to fit the societal ideal

anorexia nervosa

a severe eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior and appearance, which may become skeletal, are out of the ordinary

bulimia

an eating disorder characterized by binges on large quantities of food, followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives

adolescent brain development

more myelination, more neurons, intercoections become richer and more complex, adolescent thinking also becomes more sophisticated; prefrontal cortex not fully mature, no impulse control

formal operational stage

the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly

prepositional thought

reasoning that uses abstract logic in the absences of concrete examples

characteristics of formal operation

able to form and test theories anduse formal reasoning

adolescent egocentrism

a state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed from one's own point of view

personal fable

the view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else

imaginary audience

an adolescent's belief that his or her own behavior is a primary focus of others' attentions and concerns

factors affecting school performance

socioeconimic status ( lower SES-lower achievement), ethic and racial differences (black and hispanics-lower achievemen, asian-americans-higher achievement)

drug use by teens

50 percent of which school seniors and almost 20 percent of eighth-graders report using marijuana within the past year; some use drugs for pleasurable experience, others use them to escape from life

alcohol use by teens

binge drinking is a problem on college campuses; 76 percent of high school seniors have had a alcoholic drink in the last year; drink to prove they an, for pleasurable effects, false consensus effect

identity-versus-identity-confusion stage

the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves

identity achievement

the status of adolescents who commit to a particular identity following a period during which they consider various alternatives

identity foreclosure

the status of adolescents who prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives

moratorium

the status of adolescnts who may have explred various identity alternatives to some degree, but have not yet committed themselves

identity diffusion

the status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives, but do not commit to one or even consider options

cliques

groups of from 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another

crowds

larger groups than cliques, composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another

controversial adolescents

children who are liked by some peers and disliked by others

rejected adolescents

children who are actively disliked, ad whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner

neglected adolescents

children who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions

undersocialized delinquents

adolescent delinquents who are raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision

socialized delinquents

adolescent delinquents who know and subscribe to the norms of society and who are fairly normal psychologically

secondary aging

physical declines brought about by environmental factors or individual behavior

stress

the physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us

primary appraisal

individual's assessment of an event to determin whether its implications are positive, negative, or neutral

secondary appraisal

assessment of whether individual's coping abilities and resources are adequate to overcome the challenge posed by the potential stressor

coping

the effort to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress

problem-focused coping

atempt to manage a stressful problem or situation by directly changing the situation to make it less stressful

emotion-focused coping

conscious regulation of emotion

social support

assistance and comfort supplied by others

defensive coping

unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation

postformal thought

thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms

dialectical thinking

an interest in and appreciation for argument, counter-argument, and debate

dualistic thinking

reasoning that something is right or wrong; people are good or bad

multiple thinking

not assuming experts have all the answers; assume that own thinking on an issue has validity if their position was well thought-out and rational

relativistic

rather than seeing the world as having absolute standards and values; different societies, cultures, and individuals could have different standards and values, and all of them could be equally valid

achieving stage

the point reached by young adults in which intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long-term goals regarding careers, family, and social contributions

happiness

usually derived from feelings of independence, competence, self-esteem, or relating well to other people

intimacy-versus-isolation stage

according to Erikson, the piod of post-adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others

passionate (or romantic) love

a state of powerful absorption in someone

companionate love

the strong affection for those with whom our lives are deeply involved

intimacy component

the component of love that encompasses feelings of closeness, affection, and connectedness

passion component

the component of love that comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance

decision/commitment component

the third aspect of love that embodies both the initial cognition that one loves another person and the longer-term determination to maintain that love

homogamy

the tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics

marriage gradient

the tendency for men to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller, and lower in status, and women to marry men who are slightly older, larger, and higher in status

Holland's personality type theory

ertain personality types match particularly well with certain careers; people with good match enjoy their careers more

extrinsic motivation

motivation that drives people to obtain tangible rewards, such asney and prestige

intrinsic motivation

motivation tha tcauses people to work for their own enjoyment, not for hte rewards work may bring

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