What is the normal urine output for an adult?
What is the normal range for specific gravity?
Normal specific gravity is 1.001 to 1.029.
Specific gravity is an indicator of urine concentration.
Urinalysis: What is the normal range of pH in the Urine?
Urinalysis: What is the normal range of protein in the urine?
Less than 20 mg/dL
Urinalysis: Should glucose, ketones, hemoglobin, and bilirubin be positive or negative in the urine?
Urinalysis: What is the normal range of Urobilinogen in the urine?
Up to 1 mg/dL
Urinalysis: Should Nitrates and Leukocyte esterase be negative or positive in the urine?
Leukocyte esterase Negative
when bacteria travel up the urethra into the bladder, causing the bladder infection.
cells in the bone that break down old or damaged tissue.
repair damaged bone and build new bone to keep the skeleton strong
allow for limited movement
Diarthroses or Synovial Joints
freely moveable joints
the awareness of posture, movement, and position sense
involve muscle contration without movement. Pressing a hand against the wall.
movement of the joint during contraction. Weight training.
utilizes machines that control the speed of contraction.
aquires energy from metabolic pathways that use oxygen. Jogging.
amount of oxygen taken into the body does not meet the amount of oxygen required to perform the activity. Sprinting.
Factors that affect mobility and activity
external factors- weather
diseases and disorders
involves loss of articular cartilage in the joint
autoimmune disease involving chronic inflammation of the joints and surrounding connective tissue.
decrease in total bone density
What are some effects of immobility on muscles and bones?
atrophy (loss of muscle strength)
ankylosis (fusion of the joints)
Effects of immobility on the Lungs
depth of respirations decreases
secretions pool in the airways
muscle tone of the abdomen and chest decreases
effective coughing ability decreases
can lead to atelectasis or pneumonia
What are the effects of immobility on the heart and vessels?
Virchow's traid: stasis, activation of clotting, and vessel injury
More prone to orthostatic hypotension
What are the effects of immobility on Metabolism?
metabolic rate drops
protein and glycogen synthesis decrease
fat stores increase
reduced muscle mass
What are the benefits of rest and sleep?
adequate sleep restores energy
time for retoration and repair
sleep enhances wellness and speeds recovery from illness
a biorhythm based on the day-night pattern in a 24 hour cycle is
NREM stands for
non rapid eye movement
REM stands for
Rapid eye movement
Name factors that affect sleep
lifestyle: exercise, caffine, alcohol, medications
Enviromental factors: noise, light, temperature of room
Sleep provoked disorders
occur when signs and symptoms of the disease appear or become worse at night.
Include: Coronary Artery Disease
type of sleep that is produced by withdrawl of neurotransmitters from the recticular formation an dinhibition of arousal mechanisms in the cerebral cortex
There are how many stages of NREM sleep?
1 being lightest sleep and 4 being deepest sleep
anything that stimulates a nerve receptor (sight, taste, touch, sound or pain)
the process of receiving stimuli from nerve endings in the body
Reticular Activating System
controls consciousness and alertness
Signs of sensory deprivation are
preoccupation with somatic complaints (heart palpataions)
Signs of sensory overlaod
inability to concentrate
decreased ability to perform tasks
excessively dry mouth
loss of sense of smell
What are the energy nutrients?
Carbohydrates, protein, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and water
What nutrient is the primary energy source of the body.
Function of carbohydrates
supply energy for muscle and brain activity
enhance insulin secretion
improve Na absorption and Ca secretion
Function of protein
builds and repairs tissue
secondary energy source
Which fat raises LDL & HDL cholesterol?
Which fat raises LDL cholesterol?
Which fat raises HDL and lowers LDL cholesterol?
_________ are necessary for metabolism and preventing a particular deficeincy disease
What are the fat soluble vitamins? THe body can store these.....
A,D,E, and K
Why is water an essential nutrient?
its the basic solvent for the body's chemical processes
water serves as a medium for transporting oxygen, nutrients, and metabolic wastes, water fills the spaces in body tissues, and water helps maintain body temperature
Minerals assist in
nerve impluse transmission
What is the function of vitamin A?
night and color vision
maintaining healthy skin and mucous membranes
What is the function of vitamin D?
Regulates blood calcium levels
regulates rate of deposit and resorption of calcium in the bone
What is the function of vitamin E?
protects red blood cells and muscle tissue cells
What are the functions of vitamin K?
synthesis of clotting factors
effects of the deficiency of which vitamin cause increased bleeding?
Vitamin K deficiency causes increased bleeding
Too much Vitamin K causes what?
Name the functions of Calcium.
Bone and teeth formation
what are the effects of Ca deficiency?
bone loss, osteoporosis
What are the effects of excess Ca?
kidney stones, constipation, intestinal gas
Function of Mg?
aids thyroid hormone secretion
maintains normal BMR
activates enzymes for carbohydrate and protein metabolism
nerve and muscle function
What are the effects of Mg deficiency?
Tremor, spasms, muscle pain, poor cardiac function
What are the effects of excessive Mg?
weakness, nausea, malaise
What are the functions of Potassium (K)?
intracellular fluid control, acid base balance, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, glycogen formation, blood pressure regulation
What are the effects of too little K in the body?
What are the effects of too much K in the body?
Cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest, weakness, abd cramps, diarrhea, paresthesia
What is the function of Iron in the body?
synthesis of hemoglobin
drug detoxification in the liver
What is the Basal Metabolic Rate BMR?
is a measure of the energy required by resting tissue to maintain basic function.
5 physical assessment findings that indicate nutritional imbalance.
poorly healing wounds
poor oral or dental status
loss of subcutaneous fat or muscle mass
Protein controlled diet is used to manage what diseases?
kidney or liver disease
Calorie protein push diet is used
when needed to heal wounds, maintain or increase weight and promote growth
A normal blood glucose range is
70mg/dL - 110mg/dL
A normal serum albumin level is
3.5 - 5g/dL
Normal range for globulin levels
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) normal range is
8 - 20mg/dL
Normal Creatine level is
0.5 - 1.2mg/dL
Name nursing interventions for impaired swallowing
avoid the use of drinking straws
assist the patient to head in forward flexion when swallowing
feed in small amounts
keep the head of the bed elevated 30-45 min after feeding
Nursing Interventions for NPO patients
assist with oral care to keep mucous membranes moist
if allowed provide ice chips or chewing gum
Nursing Interventions for Older Adults eating habits
serve one food at a time in small amounts
have them eat essential foods first
position the person comfortably at meal time
serve finger foods
Older Adults with decreased gastric secretions should
eat regularly scheduled meals
and eat foods rich in vitamin D to ensure Ca absorption
Patients with glucose intolerance should avoid_______ and eat _______ _______ instead
an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience
whatever the person says it is, wherever the person says it does
cutaneous superficial pain
arises in the skin or the subcutaneous tissue
caused by the stimulation of deep internal pain receptors (such as labor pains)
Deep somatic pain
originates in the ligaments, tendons, nerves, blood vessels and bones. (eg. arthritis)
starts at the source but extends to other locations
occurs in an area that is distant from the original site (eg. heart attack)
pain percieved to originate from an area that has been surgically removed.
believed to arise from the mind
when nociceptors respond to stimuli that are potentially damaging (surgery)
complex and often more chronic than arises when injury to one or more nerves results in repeated transmission of pain signals even in the absence of painful stimuli (stroke)
short duration less than six months with a rapid onset
lasts 6 months or longer and interferes with daily activities
chronic and highly resistant to relief
Physiological steps that occur with pain. (4 steps)
pain signals can be either facilitated or inhibited, and the perception of pain can be thereby changed.
Gate control theory of pain modulation
somatic signals from nonpainful sources can inhibit signals of pain. Blocking the gate can inhibit the transmission of pain impulses.
Name Factors that influence pain
Previous pain experience
Impaired Cognition or communication
Effects of unrelieved pain on the endocrine system
release of excessive amounts of hormones
insulin and testoterone levels decrease
hyperglycemia and poor insulin use
fever and increased respirations
Effects of unrelieved pain on the cardiovascular system
increase in heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen demand
angina, intracoronary thrombosis, myocaridal ischemia, and infarction
Effects of unrelieved pain on the musculoskeletal system
impaired muscle functioning
Effects of unrelieved pain on the respiratory system
splinting which reduces air exchange
increase in inspiratory and expiratory pressures
can result in atelectasis or pneumonia
Effects of unrelieved pain on the genitourinary system
release of excessive hormones which lead to decreased urinary output,
HTN and increased cardio output
Effects of unrelieved pain on the GI system
intestinal secretions and smooth muscle tone increase,
gastric emptying and motility decrease
releive mild to moderate pain and may also reduce inflammation and fever.
Action of Opioid analgesics
relieve pain by binding to opiate receptors and activating endogenous pain suppression in the CNS
stimulate some opioids while they block others
may be used as a primary therapy for mild pain or in conjunction with opioids for moderate to severe pain
Chemical pain relief measures include (name 3)
1. Nerve blocks
2. Local anesthesia
3. Topical anesthesia
are used for acute, chronic,and cancer pain. They are great medications for break through pain. (morphine)
Practitioners use the __________three step ladder system in the selection and titration of an analgesic.
World health organization's
The first 'step' in the WHO ladder system for pain is
nonopioid +- adjuvant
The 2nd step in the WHO ladder system for pain is
Opioid for mild to moderate pain
The 3rd step in the WHO ladder system for pain is
Opioid for moderate to severe pain
NSAIDS act primarily in the
peripheral tissues by interfering with the production of prostaglandins
Acute Pain symptoms include
increased systolic blood pressure
increased heart rate and force of contraction
increased respiratory rate
dialated blood vessels to the brain
Deep or prolonged pain symptoms include
decreased systolic pressure, possible syncope
decreased pulse rate
changeable breathing patterns
slow, monotonous speech
objective signs of pain include
withdrawl from painful stimuli
physcological responses to pain
name the anatomical structures of the GI system
most digestion and absorption of food occurs in the
the small intestine consists of 3 parts:
What factors affect bowel elimination?
personal and sociocultural factors
nutrition, hydration, and activity level
medications and procedures
pathological conditions (food allergies)
How does this medication affect the bowel? Antacids
How does this medication affect the bowel? NSAIDS
can lead to ulceration
How does this medication affect the bowel? Antibiotics
can result in diarrhea
How does this medication affect the bowel? Iron
is notorious for causing constipation
How does this medication affect the bowel? Pain medications
How does this medication affect the bowel? Antimotility drugs
How does this medication affect the bowel? laxatives
How does anesthesia affect the bowels
slow bowel motility
How does stress affect bowel elimination?