friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization.
least cost theory
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
Industry dealing with manufacturing or construction.
losses in one area may be offset by savings in another (e.g., higher labor costs could be offset by lower taxes).
a cost that rises or falls depending on how much is produced
A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
Industries designed to stimulate growth through the establishment of various supporting industries
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
North American Free Trade Agreement
primary industrial region
regions that consist of one or more core areas of industrial development with subsidiary clusters some distance away
secondary industrial region
regions that consist of one or more core areas of industrial development with subsidiary cluster some distance away
special economic zone
Specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economics
A model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
a modern, industrialized country in which people are generally better educated and healthier and live longer than people in developing countries do
a country that has low industrial production and little modern technology
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
gross national product
The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year.
Assumes all countries will develop eventually.
model of economic development maintains that all countries go through five stages of development
The entrenchment of the colonial order, such as trade and investment, under a new guise.
poor regions that are dependent in significant ways on the core and do not have as much control over their own affairs
intermediary regions in terms of the hierarchy of power between core regions and peripheral regions.
Believes not all countries will be able to develop.
World Systems Theory
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
growth to a global or worldwide scale
System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford.
Foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
areas alone or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to research, development, and sale of high technology products
Manufacturing export zones
host country establishes areas with favorable tax and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations
New international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
centers or nodes of high-technology research
through processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced
the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technolgy enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.