A&P 2- Chapter 20

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How many liters of fluid are returned to circulation by the lymphatic system per day?

3 Liters

What will happen to BV and BP if lymphatic system doesn't return fluids?

BV and BP will drop

What helps with fat absorption in the lymphatic system?

Lacteals

Where are the lacteals located?

Villi of intestines

What is the primary job of the lacteals?

Absorb fats from food we eat

What is responsible for the defense of the lymphatic system?

Immune functions

Where are lymph capillaries interspersed?

Throughout tissues

What kind of endothelial connections do they have?

Loose endothelial connections; these are very permeable compared to regular capillaries

Is it hard or easy for fluid to get into lymph capillaries?

Easy

Lymph capillaries collect that fluid that is NOT captured by the

Venous end of the capillaries (about 3L a day) and returns it to the venous circulation

What is the fluid called that the lymph capillaries collect because it is not captured by the venous end of the capillaries?

Lymph

What is the composition of lymph?

Primarily water, has electrolytes, proteins, etc.

What do the lymph vessels run along with?

Deeper arteries and veins

How are lymph vessels formed?

Formed by the coalescence of capillaries

What kind of valves do the lymph vessels contain?

Valves to facilitate 'one way' movement of lymph back into general circulation

What is the structure of lymph vessels?

Same 3 layered structure as veins, but much thinner

Where is the beginning of the thoracic duct?

Cisterna chyli in the thorax

What does cisterna chyli mean?

Well or hole

What does the thoracic duct drain?

The legs, abdomen, left half of the thorax, left arm and left half of the head

Where does the thoracic duct empty into?

The left subclavian vein

What is the function of the right lymphatic duct?

It returns lymph from the right half of the thorax, the right half of the head and the right arm

Which side of the lymphatic system is smaller?

Right side

Where does the right lymphatic duct enter?

The right subclavian vein

What shape are lymph nodes?

Round or bean shaped

What kind of outer capsule do lymph nodes have?

Fibrous outer capsule

What divides up the inside of lymph nodes into compartments?

Fibrous trabeculae

*What kind of lymphocytes does the outer cortex of lymph nodes have?

B-cell lymphocytes

*What kind of lymphocytes does the deeper medulla of lymph nodes have?

Both B and T-cell lymphocytes

Where are large clusters of lymph nodes found?

Close to the surface in cervical (head and neck), axillary, cubital and inguinal (groin) areas of the body

Kids have many ______________ lymph nodes

Inguinal

The lymph node acts as a collection point for several....

Afferent (incoming) lymph vessels

Usually only one or two of these will exit the lymph nodes...

Efferent (outgoing) lymph vessels

What kind of cells are found within the nodes?

Lymphocytes, macrophages, and reticular cells

What happens when a foreign cell invades a node?

Lymphocytes undergo rapid proliferation at the germinal centers to deal with them

Where is the spleen located?

In the extreme upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity

What does the spleen do?

Filters, cleanses and destroys foreign substances in the blood

What kind of cells does the spleen destroy?

Worn out RBCs

What part of hemoglobin does the spleen recycle?

Heme

What does the spleen do with iron

Stores it for later use to make hemoglobin

What does the spleen act as a reservoir for, and what does it store?

Reservoir for blood and stores platelets

What is white pulp mainly made of?

Lymphocytes

What is red pulp made of?

Venous sinuses and capillaries; deals with RBC destruction

Where is the thymus located

In the superior mediastinim, inferior to thyroid gland

When does the thymus increase/decrease in size?

Increases in size until puberty then decreases until unnoticeable in adults

What kind of cells does the thymus house and mature?

T-cell lymphocytes

What does the thymus-blood barrier do?

Prevents pathogens from invading the thymus gland and prematurely stimulating T-cell lymphocytes

How does the thymus aid in developing immune system, especially in neonates

It releases hormones

What will happen if you remove an infant's thymus

They will die because they never develop an immune system

Thymosin

STimulates blood barrier to create t-lymphocytes which recognize foreign antigens on the surface of invading cells

What does SCID stand for?

Severe Compromised Immune Disease

What is SCID?

WHen you take out a child's thymus and they don't have immunity (and die)

What do the tonsils form around the entrance to the pharynx?

A ring of lymphatic tissues

Which tonsils are most often removed?

Palantine tonsils

What are the pharyngeal tonsils AKA?

Adenoids

What is elphantiasis caused by?

A parasite

How does elphantiasis occur?

The worms usually infect the inguinal lymph nodes and block drainage.

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