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Gene

A series of organic bases linked together that carry hereditary traits.

Allele

Two genes that, together, show a trait

Haploid

The set number of chromosomes in an organism

Diploid

Half the set number chromosomes in an organism

Homozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait

Heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait

Regulator Gene

Carry hereditary information and regulate cell function

Operator Gene

Controls the function of the regulator genes. Two types: Operon, which causes function and Reperson, which ceases function.

Stages in Mitosis

Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase,

Interphase

Cell stops all metabolic function and prepares to divide

Prophase

Nuclear membrane disappears and chromosomes appear. Chromosomes divide and produce sister chromatids. Spindle fibers form.

Metaphase

Sister chroma tides line up across the center of the cell

Anaphase

Sister chromatids separate into chromosomes and migrate to opposite sides of the cell.

Telophase

Cytokinesis is completed. A new nucleus forms around the chromosomes and spindle fibers disappear. Plant cells form cell wall.

Differences between Animal and Plant Mitosis

~Centrioles not in plant cells
~Cell wall in plant cells, pinching of cytoplasm in animal cell ~Splitting of cell wall in plant cell

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis: used for asexual reproduction/starts with diploid, ends with diploid.
Meiosis: used for sexual reproduction/starts with diploid, ends with haploid

Reproductive Division

The other name for Meiosis

Stages in Meiosis

Meiosis 1: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Meiosis 2: Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2

Meiosis 1

Diploid parent cell divides into two haploid daughter cells,but the new daughter cells are not identical to the parent cell

Meiosis 2

A. Each daughter cell produced in Meiosis 1 undergoes mitotic division.Each cell will produce two daughter cells each with a haploid number of chromosomes.

Sickle Cell Anemia

a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape. Symptoms: Pain in joints, pain in abdomen, possible convulsion, and damage to liver, heart, or spleen.

Cystic Fibrosis

a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele that should help in absorbing water; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated (4% whites are carriers - most common lethal genetic disease)

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