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Aqueous Humor

Fluid present in the anterior & posterior chambers of the eye. It is an alkine, watery fluid that helps give the cornea its curved shape; it is secreted by the ciliary processes (can be reproduced).

Vitreous Humor

Clear, jelly-like substance that maintains IOP to stabilize & support the retina; found in posterior cavity. CANNOT be replaced.

Blepharoplasty

Surgery done on the eyelids - done to correct ptosis , remove fatty bulges around the eyes, and eliminate hanging skin from the eyelids.

Scleral Buckling Component (explant)

A peice of silicone sponge, or band. Used to fix retinal tears.

Cataract

Clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Mostly related to aging - common in older people.

Chalazion

Small cyst of the upper or lower eyelid caused by chronic inflammation & blockage of a sebaceceous gland (meibomian gland) in the eyelid.

Choroid

A thin vascular layer between the sclera and the retina. It supplies blood/nutrients to the retina and conducts arteries and nerves to other structures in the eye.

Conjunctiva

A thin, clear, mucous membrane that covers the eye. "portal of entery"

Cornea

The transparent front "window" of the eye that transmits and focuses light into the eye.

Cryosurgery

extreme cold to freeze and produce adhesions

Blepharochalasis

Redundant and lax eyelid skin

Entropion

inversion (inward turning) of the eyelid margin.

Diathermy

The use of heat(high frequency current) to seal any tears

Ectropion

Abnormal eversion (outward turning) of the lid margin.

Enucleation

Surgical removal of the eye (globe) - muscles are retained for attachment of prost.

Evisceration

Removal of the internal contents of the eye.

Exoneration

Removal of the globe, orbital contents, muscles and part of the bony orbit. Poss. eyelid

Glaucoma

Increased IOP caused by obstruction in the flow of aqueous humor and the leading cause of blindness.

Globe

Retrobulbar, the eyeball in it's entirety.

Keratoplasty

Corneal transplant, partial or FTG

Keratectomy

shaving away some of top layer of cornea

Lacrimal Apparatus

The system that forms tears, conveys and drains the tears. Lacrimal glands (peach above eyelid), exit ducts (blue in nose), lacrimal canals, nasolacrimal duct.

Miotic

Pupil-constricting agents that act on the sphincter of the iris. Can be injection or topical.

Mydriatic/cyceoplegics

dilates the pupil. (My"D"riatic=dilate)

Myopia

Nearsightedness

Pterygium

A winglike triangular fleshy growth that begins at medial canthus and extends over conjunctiva

Ptosis

Drooping or sagging of the eyelid; involves the levator muscle

Optic nerve

A sensory nerve continuous with the posterior of the retina, respoinsible for sensation to touch and pain.

Sclera

firm fibrous membrane, white (except where muscles attach) outer coat over the eyeball. Serves to maintain the form of the globe, also known as the outermost tunic of the eye.

Stigmatism

A common form of visual impairment in which part of an image is blurred, due to an irregularity in the curvature of the cornea.

Tonometer

Instrument used for measuring intraocular pressure in cases like glaucoma

Trabeculectomy

creation of a bypass between the angle of the anterior chamber & subconjunctival space

Dacryo-

Combining form referring to the lacrimal apparatus of the eye.

Extrascapular cataract extraction (ECCE)

Small incision in the anterior capsule - The lens is expressed or removed with Kirby lens loop. Adv. post. lens cap. provides barrier to protect vitreous. Dis. longer recovery.

Extrinsic muscles

The 6 muscles of the eye that come from the bones of the orbit and functions of move the eye. The muscles are: Lateral rectus, Inferior rectus, Superior rectus, medial rectus, Inferior oblique, and Superior oblique.

peripheral iridectomy (PI)

Removal of a section of the iris to reestablish the outflow of aqueous humor relieve the pressure buildup that occurs in patients with glaucoma.

What size & type of suture is used to close the corneal incision for an Iridectomy?

10-0 nylon or vicryl

Kerato-

Indicating a relation to the cornea.

Trephine

A cylindrical saw for cutting a circular piece of the cornea in a keratoplasty.

What is the purpose of the lacrimal system?

To keep the conjunctiva moist.

Pupil

Hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows the transmission of light to enter the retina.

Name the 7 bones that form the orbit.

Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Superior Maxillary, Malar (zygotmatic), Lacrimal, and Palate.

The cornea is continuous with the_______.

Sclera.

Name the 2 cavities of the eye.

Anterior and Posterior.

Describe the location and function of the crystalline lens.

The lens is situated behind the pupil, in front of the vitreous body. It forms the posterior chamber of the eye and focuses images for the retina.

Macula

Central region of the retina just inferior to the optic nerve

Rods

Important for seeing shades of gray (black & white) in dim light and for seeing general shapes or outlines.

Cones

Provide color vision in bright light and enable the person to see sharp images.

What fluid is effected and where with Glaucoma?

Aqueous humor; Anterior chamber.

Why does the increase of IOP lead to blindness?

The pressure causes atrophy of the optic nerve which leads to central vision loss and if not treated to blindness.

Describe two types of cataract formation.

1) primary: congenital or aging (60-80 yrs.)
2) secondary: trauma or disease (diabetes)

What happens when a large retinal detachment occurs?

The retina separates from the choroid of the eye. The entire retina will detach = loss of vision.

Explain why a patient may see "spots" or "flashes" of light with the development of renal detachment.

It's caused by the tugging(flashes of light) of the vitreous where it is attached to the retina. As it pulls away, fluid becomes condensed and stringy which is seen as spots.

What visual defect will occur in a person who lacks cones in the retina?

color blindness.

What condiditon causes dacryocysitis and how is it fixed?

Obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct = inflammation of the lacrimal sac. Dacryocystostomy: I&D

What is strabismus?

Misalignment or deviation of the eyes that normally work simultaneously to track visual objects. "crossed eyes" "wall eyes" "lazy eye"

Diplopia

Double vision.

Gentamycin sulfate/ ANCEF/ vanceomyocin

Antibiotic - protect against infection

Balanced Salt Solution

Irrigants

Tetracaine/lidocaine

Topical anesthetic - Pain prevention.

Sodium Hyalurate

Vitreous substitute- keeps chamber from collapsing, and prevents formation of adhesions.

Celestone/ depo-medrol/solu-medrol

Corticosteroids

Epinephrine/cocaine

Vasoconstrictor

Michol/almocarpine/isopto-eserine

Miotic- constict the pupil

Atropine sulfate/cyclogl/neo-synephrine

Mydriatic - dilates the pupil

What type of drape is used to fit the eye?

Adhesive backed aperture drapes.

What is the purpose of Weck sponges?

To help suck up fluid/blood in eye surgery.

Why are powder free gloves typically used for eye surgery?

Because the powder from the gloves can create corneal irritation.

Recession/resection is used for correcting what condition of the eye?

Strabismus.

What's the common procedure used to treat retinal tears?

Scleral buckle

How is cryotherapy used to treat retinal detachment?

Scleral buckle- By freezing the break to prevent it progressing to a full-scale detachment, explant is silicone sponge or rod

Vitrectomy

deliberate removal of a portion of the vitreous humor because of vitreal hemorrhages or retinal detachment

What procedure is used to open up blocked tear ducts?

lacrimal probing - A probe is inserted through the tear duct and saline in injected to dilate the duct open gradually

In eye surgery, what procedure is a trephine used for?

keratoplasty

Phacoemulsification

method which uses ultrasonic energy to break up the lens in a cataract extraction, incisions are self sealing. Adv. less time. Dis. cannot be used on everyone

What is a diathermy used in?

Scleral buckle procedure for retinal tear. Explant is silicone sponge or band

Dilating and probing.

Bowman.

Grasping and holding forceps

Bishop-Harmon Iris forceps.

Eye speculum

Barraquer (closed) wire speculum

Micro scissors

Wescott tenotomy scissors

Grasps eyelid to facilitate excision of chalazion

Lambert chalazion forcepts.

Micro needle holder

Castroviejo needle holder.

Blunt muscle hook

Jameson muscle hook.

What can be used to replace the vitreous humor?

Sodium hyaluronate.

What is a virtector used for?

suction/irrigator of vitreous it during a vitrectomy (cataract removal)

What is the purpose of applying fluorescein to the cornea?

It's a diagnostic tool used in diagnosing corneal abrasions.

Where is the lacrimal gland located?

Located within the upper eyelid near the outer angle of the orbit.

The lacrimal sac narrows into the____________ _______which empties into the_________ ________ of the nose.

nasolacrimal duct; inferior meatus

Uneven curvature of the cornea is known as___________.

Astigmatism or keratoconus

Ciliary body

An intrinsic muscle; alters the crystalline lens

Iris

the colored portion of the eye, an intrinsic muscle that regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil.

Anterior chamber

The space bound anteriorly to the iris and posteriorly to the cornea. Located in the anterior cavity, filled with aqueous humor

Posterior chamber

Small space directly posterior to iris, but anterior to the lens within the anterior cavity.

Refractive disorder

The cornea and the lens don't bend to focus on the retina properly.

Irrigants

Protect/keep moist the cornea and is used to irrigate the anterior chamber intra-op.

Retrobulbar block

Is given behind the eyeball; a honan is needed.

Dacryocystorhinostomy

Performed to establish a new pathway for tear drainage from the lacrimal sac to the middle meatus of the nose. 4% cocaine is used as a topical anesthetic

A resection done for strabisimus correction stregthens the ________ _________ by removing a section.

lateral rectus

Keratomy

Procedure to treat patients with myopia; mlt. radial incisions to flatten cornea.

Path of tears:

lacrimal gland; conjunctival sac; lacrimal puncta; lacrimal canaliculi; lacrimal sac; nasolacrimal duct; inferior meatus

What are the two chambers of the anterior cavity?

Anterior & posterior chambers

What type of needle is used in eye surgery?

Spatulated

What size & type of suture is used on a Ptosis repair?

Double armed 6-0 Prolene (nonabsorbable)

External Tunic:

Conjunctiva, cornea, and sclera

Middle tunic:

Choroid, ciliary body, iris, and pupil

Inner tunic:

Retina, optic nerve, crystalline lens, anterior cavity & posterior cavity

Retina

Delicate nervous memmrane, consists of 2 parts: pigmented layer that absorbes light & neutral layer that responds to light. Contains photoreceptors rods & cones.

Anterior cavity

Lies in front of the lens and contains two chambers: anterior & posterior chambers. Filled with aqueous humor.

Posterior cavity

Larger then the anterior cavity, occupies all space posterior to the lens, sepensory liogaments, and ciliary body. Contains vitreous humor.

OD

right eye "oh damn right"

OS

left eye

OU

both eyes (U has 2 tips/two eyes)

gttp

drops

Dacryocystectomy

Removal of lacrimal duct

Dacryocystominostomy

Establish new passageway from lacrimal sac to nasal cavity

What muscle is doubled over in a strabismus tuck?

Superior oblique

aphakia

absence of lens, cannot see w/o surgical intervention (I phak ya out)

Corneal sculpting

reshaping corneal surface w/ laser (LASIK)

What is an ocutome used for?

Cuts the vitreous and aspires it during a vitrectomy (retinal detachment)

Tetracaine/hydrochloride/Wydase/xylocaine

Local infiltration; used for retro/peribulbar blocks

Corticosteroids

Anti-inflammatory; not to be used in presence of infection

Vasoconstrictors

decrease bleeding; prolong local, keep pupil dilated.

Anesthetics

produce absence of sensation

Topical anesthetic

dropped into eye

peribulbar block

around the soft tissue of the globe; more common than retrobulbar

Hyaluronidase

softens fibers of the tissue to enhance spread of local

Wydase

Hyaluronidase

Fluorenscein sodium

Green or blue stain/dye used for premature cataracts or corneal scratches

Alpha chymotrysin

Dissolves zonules (thickened radial fibers in posterior cavity); relaxes muscles

Viscoelestic: provisc/viscoat/healon

Sodium Hyalurate

Hyperopia

Farsightedness

Closed angle glaucoma

very painful, emergency surgical intervention

Open angle glaucoma

chronic; treated with medication

Laser iridotomy

Argon laser used in closed angle glaucoma to ehance flow of aqueous humor

Laser trabeculoplasty

argon laser used for open angle glaucoma

Goniotomy

Opening of a congenital membrane from the iris surface to schwalbe's line causing cangenital glaucoma

Scleral Buckling

implantation of a wedge of silicone for extrenal pressure

Laser (argon)

radiant heat to burn causing adhesions

Photocoagulation

sealing off a hole in the retina using a xenon or laser photocoagulator.

External structures:

Bony orbits, extrinsic occular muscles, eyelids, lacrimal apparatus

What two structures of the middle tunic cause the eyes to contract and expand because of light?

Iris and pupil

Bipolar cautery is used for?

forceps for skin; eraser tip for sclera

Argon laser

retinal detachment; tears (common)

Nd:YAG

lysis of adhesions (common)

Krypton

retinal vascular diseaded or vessel aberrations of chorid

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