Internal Organization: Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Cerebrum

Created by annakpate 

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Two functions of the cerebellum

1. To coordinate muscle groups for complex motor activity
2. Works closely with vestibular system to coordinate movements of the head with the rest of the body

key term for cerebellum

coordination/incoordination

What are the two motor editors?

1. Cerebellum
2. Basal Ganglia

cerebellar peduncles

pathway in/out of cerebellum; communication

Three types of information received by the cerebellum

1. Proprioceptive
2. Vestibular
3. Cortical Motor Planning

Proprioceptive information

in through the inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles

vestibular information

in through the inferior cerebellar peduncles

cortical motor planning information

in through the inferior and middle cerebral peduncles

Information flow through cerebellum

1. info goes straight into CEREBELLAR CORTEX
2. DEEP NUCLEI w/in arbor vitae
3. By way of the THALAMUS, to CEREBRAL CORTEX
4. PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
- Final decision here and message sent out

Damage to cerebellum

- incoordination
- may see difference in gait (usually wider-based to help keep balance)

Thalamus

within the diencephalon; made up of nuclei that mostly process incoming sensory information

Medial Geniculate Body

houses the Auditory nucleus
receiving auditory information

Lateral Geniculate Body

house the Visual nucleus
receiving visual information

Ventral Posterior Lateral

VPL
Somatosensory information

Ventral Posterior Medial

VPM
somatosensory information
taste

Anterior nucleus

limbic system; emotions

Dorsomedial nucleus

limbic system; emotions

Anterior nucleus and Dorsomedial nucleus

Are connected by axons to other parts of the limbic system - including the mammillary bodies, septal region, and cingulate gyrus

Ventral Anterior Nucleus

VA
receiving information from cerebellum and basal ganglia and sends info through thalamus before going to cortex

Ventral Lateral Nucleus

VL
receiving information from cerebellum and basal ganglia and sends info through thalamus before going to cortex

Intralaminar nuclei

receiving information from reticular system

Internal Capsule

- Two way pathway between the thalamus and cerebral cortex

Importance of internal capsule

allows senses to be informed by a higher authority; can tell you whether incoming information is important enough to pay attention to

Two types of cortex

neocortex and allocortex

cortex

covering the surface of the entire cerebrum; cell bodies; into every sulcus, groove, fissure

neocortex

a. means "new cortex"; newer in terms of evolution
b. Humans have more than other organisms
c. 6 layers of cell bodies
i. These cell bodies are arranged neatly into vertical columns. (As a baby's brain develops, it does some from the inside out, which produces this neat, structured arrangement)
d. More sophisticated part

allocortex

a. Older cortex
b. 3 layers of cell bodies
c. Cingulate Gyrus, Septal Region, Hippocampus, Parahippocampal are all allocortex areas
d. All allocortex areas are part of the limbic lobe (system)

hippocampus

Doesn't see "the light of day"; hidden; inside temporal lobe; bulges into lateral ventricle that serves temporal lobe

parahippocampal

continuation of the cingulate gyrus

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