Biology Chapter 24 (Reproduction of Seed Plants)

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Diploid

Are sporophytes haploid or diploid?

Haploid

Are gametophytes haploid or diploid?

Cone

Where inside a gymnosperm sporophyte is the gametophyte found?

Flower

Where inside an angiosperm sporophyte is the gametophyte found?

Cones

Where does reproduction in gymnosperms take place?

Pollen cones

The male cones of a gymnosperm which produce the male gametophyte, pollen grains.

Seed cones

The larger, more familiar female cones of a gymnosperm which produce the female gametophyte.

Ovule

The two things near the base of each scale on a gymnosperm seed cone where the female gametophytes develop. In them, meiosis produces haploid cells that divide to produce female gametophytes.

Pollination drop

The sticky material secreted by female gymnosperms that catches pollen grains and ensures that they stay on the seed cone.

Pollen tube

The structure which grows from a pollen grain which lands near an ovule, allowing it to fertilize the egg.

Flowers

Reproductive organs in angiosperms that are composed of 4 kinds of specialized leaves.

Sepal

The outermost type of leaf in a flower which is often green and resembles ordinary leaves. Enclose the bud before it opens and protect the flower while it develops.

Petal

The type of leaf in a flower which is found just inside the sepals and is often brightly colored to attract pollinators such as insects to the flower.

Stamen

The type of leaf in a flower which makes up the male part and produces the male gametophyte. Consists of an anther and a filament.

Filament

A long, thin stalk which supports an anther in the stamen of a flower.

Anther

An oval sac at the tip of a filament where meiosis takes place, producing haploid male gametophytes (pollen grains).

Carpels

The innermost parts of a flower which produce the female gametophytes.

Pistils

Another name for Carpels.

Ovary

The broad base on a carpel which contains one or more ovules where female gametophytes are produced.

Style

The stalk of a carpel, which has a stigma at the top.

Stigma

The sticky portion at the top of a carpel where pollen grains land.

Compound carpel

When several carpels are fused together into one female reproductive structure.

Yes

Is it possible for a single angiosperm to have separate flowers on it to produce male and female gametophytes?

Embryo sac

The eight nuclei and surrounding membrane contained within the ovule which form the female gametophyte of an angiosperm, or flowering plant.

Wind

Most gymnosperms and some angiosperms are pollinated by ___.

Animals

Most angiosperms are pollinated by ___.

Endosperm

A nutrient-rich tissue formed from the extra sperm nucleus and two polar nuclei in the embryo sac. It is a triploid (3N) cell and nourishes the seedling as it grows.

Double fertilization

The name for the process where two fertilization events take place between the male and female gametophytes of an angiosperm.

Seed

The structure which provides protection and nutrition for the embryo and helps plants succeed on land.

Fruit

A ripened ovary which contains angiosperm seeds.

Seed coat

The outer layer that protects the embryo and its food supply.

Animals, Wind, and Water

Three ways seeds can be dispersed.

Dormancy

A period during which an embryo is alive but not growing. The length of this period varies based on species. Environmental factors such as temperature and moisture can cause it to germinate.

Germination

The early growth stage of a plant embryo. They absorb water and swell, cracking the seed coat open.

Vegetative reproduction

The process in which some flowering plants reproduce asexually by mitosis alone, creating many genetically identical plants. It includes the production of new plants from horizontal stems, plantlets, and underground roots.

Stolons

Long, trailing stems that produce roots when they touch the ground. (Horizontal stems)

Cuttings, Grafting, and Budding

3 ways to produce identical copies of a plant or to produce offspring from seedless plants.

Scion

The piece cut from a plant which is going to be attached to a stock.

Stock

The plant to which a scion is attached.

Grafting

When stems are used as scions, the process is called _____.

Budding

When buds are used as scions, the process is called ______.

Agriculture

The systematic cultivation of plants.

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