1. Warren G. Harding's weakness as president included all of the following except a(n)
a) lack of political experience
b) mediocre mind
c) inability to detect moral weakness in his associates
d) unwillingness to hurt people's feelings by saying no
e) administrative weakness
2. Match each member of President Harding's cabinet below with his major area of responsibility.
A. Charles Evans Hughes B. Andrew Mellon C. Herbert Hoover D. Albert Fall E. Harry Daugherty 1. taxes and tariffs 2. naval oil reserves 3. naval arms limitation 4. foreign trade and trade associations 5. justice and law enforcement
a) A-5, B-3, C-2, D-4, E-1
b) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2, E-5
c) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-5, E-1
d) A-4, B-5, C-1, D-3, E-2
e) A-1, B-2, C-5, D-3, E-4
3. Which of the following individuals was considered one of the "worst minds" of President Harding's cabinet?
a) Herbert Hoover
b) Calvin Coolidge
c) Andrew Mellon
d) Charles Evans Hughes
e) Albert Fall
4. Republican economic policies under Warren G. Harding
a) sought to continue the same laissez-faire doctrine as had been the practice under William McKinley.
b) hoped to encourage the government to guide business along the path to profits.
c) worked to get standpatters out of administration bureaus.
d) aimed at supporting increased competition in business.
e) aided small business at the expense of big business.
5. During the 1920s, the Supreme Court
a) often ruled against progressive legislation.
b) rigorously upheld the antitrust laws.
c) generally promoted government regulation of the economy.
d) staunchly defended the rights of organized labor.
e) upheld laws providing special protection for women.
6. ____________________ was (were) adversely affected by the demobilization policies adopted by the federal government at the end of World War I.
a) The cement industry
b) The railroad industry
c) The American Legion
e) Organized labor
7. The Supreme Court in the Muller and Adkins cases centered on
a) racial differences.
b) affirmative action.
c) 'right to work' laws from several states.
d) the question of whether women merited special legal and social treatment.
e) antitrust legislation.
8. The non-business group that realized the most significant, lasting gains from World War I was
c) the Klu Klux Klan.
9. Despite President Warren G. Harding's policy of isolationism, the U.S. became involved in the Middle East to
a) support a homeland for Jews in Israel.
b) prevent the League of Nations from establishing British and French. protectorates in the region.
c) stop the Soviet Union from dominating the area.
d) secure oil-drilling concessions for American companies.
e) curb the rise of Arab nationalism.
10. Warren G. Harding was willing to seize the initiative on the issue of international disarmament because
a) he feared renewed war in Europe.
b) he recognized that an arms race was imminent.
c) businesspeople were unwilling to help pay for a larger U.S. Navy.
d) he did not want the League of Nations to take the lead on this problem.
e) American public opinion supported peacemaking efforts.
11. The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
a) formally ended World War I for the U.S., which had refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
b) set a schedule for German payment of war reparations.
c) established a battleship ration for the leading naval powers.
d) condemned Japan for its unprovoked attack on Manchuria.
e) outlawed war as a solution to international rivalry.
12. In the 1920s the Fordney-McCumber Tariff _____________ tariff rates and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff ______________ tariff rates, so that by 1930 the tariff rates had been substantially ____________ from the opening of the decade.
a) raised; lowered; lowered
b) lowered; raised; raised
c) raised; raised; raised
d) lowered; lowered; lowered
e) raised; lowered; raised
13. Because the U.S. raised its tariffs in the 1920s,
a) European nations raised their tariffs.
b) the postwar chaos in Europe was prolonged.
c) international economic distress deepened.
d) American foreign trade declined.
e) all of the above.
14. The Teapot Dome scandal involved the mishandling of
a) naval oil reserves.
b) funds for veterans' hospitals.
c) the budget for the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
d) European war-debt payments.
e) the sale of presidential pardons.
15. The major political scandal of Harding's administration resulted in the conviction and imprisonment of his secretary of
a) the treasury.
c) the navy.
e) the interior.
16. Which of the following descriptive attributes is least characteristic of President Coolidge?
17. During Coolidge's presidency, government policy was set largely by the interests and values of
a) farmers and wage earners.
b) the business community.
c) racial and ethnic minorities.
d) progressive reformers.
e) conservative New Englanders.
18. After the initial shock of the Harding scandals, many Americans reacted by
a) demanding that all of those involved be sent to prison.
b) excusing some of the wrongdoers on the grounds that 'they ad gotten away with it.'
c) demanding the impeachment of the president.
d) suggesting that Harding resign the presidency so that Calvin Coolidge could take control.
e) calling for a thorough Congressional investigation.
19. One of the major problems facing farmers in the 1920s was
b) the inability to purchase modern farm equipment.
c) passage of the NcNary-Haugen Bill.
d) the prosecution of cooperatives under antitrust laws.
e) drought and insects like the boll weevil.
20. In the mid-1920s President Coolidge twice refused to sign legislation proposing to
a) exempt farmers' cooperatives from the antitrust laws.
b) defend the family farm against corporate takeovers.
c) make the U.S. a member of the World Court.
d) lower taxes.
e) subsidize farm prices.
21. The intended beneficiaries of the McNary-Haugen Bill were _______________; the intended beneficiaries of the Norris-LaGuardia Act were __________________.
a) railroads; labor unions
b) farmers; labor unions
c) banks; railroads
d) farmers; banks
e) railroads; farmers
22. Which of the following splits did not affect the Democratic party in 1924?
a) "wets' vs. "drys"
b) immigrants vs. old-stock Americans
c) urbanites vs. suburbanites
d) Fundamentalists vs. Modernists
e) northern liberals vs. southern conservatives
23. Robert La Follette's Progressive party advocated all of the following except
a) government ownership of railroads.
b) relief for farmers.
c) opposition to anti-labor injunctions.
d) opposition to monopolies.
e) increased power of the Supreme Court.
24. In 1924 the Democratic party convention came within a single vote of adopting a resolution condemning
a) the Ku Klux Klan.
b) immigration restrictions.
e) business monopolies.
25. The Progressive party did not do well in the 1924 election because
a) it could not win the farm vote.
b) too many people shared in prosperity to care about reform.
c) it was too caught up in internal discord.
d) the liberal vote was split between it and the Democratic Party.
e) La Follette could not win the Socialists endorsement.
26. In the early 1920s, the U.S.' ____________ was a glaring exception to its general indifference to the outside world.
a) involvement in the World Court.
b) armed intervention in the Caribbean and Central America.
c) eventual involvement in the League of nations.
d) naval buildup.
e) support for anticommunist rebels.
27. America's European allies argued that they should not have to repay loans that the U.S. made to them during World War I because
a) the U.S. had owed them about $4 billion before the war.
b) the amount of money involved was not significant.
c) they had paid a much heavier price in lost lives, so it was only fair for the U.S. to write off the debt.
d) the U.S. was making so much money from Mexican oil that it did not need extra dollars.
e) Germany was not paying its reparations to them, so they could not afford to pay off the loans.
28. As a result of America's insistence that war debts be repaid,
a) the French and British demanded enormous reparations payments from Germany.
b) the German mark was ruined by drastic inflation.
c) nearly all U.S. allies repaid their loans.
d) the U.S. became more involved in European affairs to ensure repayment.
e) the allies insisted on lower U.S. tariffs.
29. America's major foreign-policy problem in the 1920s was addressed by the Dawes Plan, which
a) ended the big-stick policy of armed intervention in Central America and the Caribbean.
b) established a ratio of allowable naval strength between the U.S., Britain, and Japan.
c) condemned the Japanese aggression against Manchuria.
d) aimed to prevent German re-armament.
e) tried to solve the tangle of war-debt and war reparations payments.
30. The most colorful presidential candidate of the 1920s was
a) Calvin Coolidge.
b) John W. Davis.
c) Alfred E. Smith.
d) Herbert Hoover.
e) Robert La Follette.
31. All of the following were political liabilities for Alfred E. Smith except his
a) Catholic religion.
b) support for repeal of prohibition.
c) big-city background.
d) failure to win the support of American labor.
e) radio speaking skill.
32. One of Herbert Hoover's chief strengths as a presidential candidate was his
a) adaptability to the give-and-take of political accommodation.
b) considerable experience in running for political office.
c) personal charm and charisma.
d) ability to face criticism.
e) talent for administration.
33. When elected to the presidency in 1828, Herbert Hoover
a) was militantly anti-labor.
b) brought little administrative talent or experience to the job.
c) understood that his major challenge was to find a solution to the Great Depression.
d) was a millionaire.
e) had been a successful governor of California.
34. The Federal Farm Board, created by the Agricultural Marketing Act, lent money to farmers primarily to help them to
a) organize producers' cooperatives.
b) learn a new and more profitable trade.
c) open new land to cultivation.
d) purchase expensive new farm machinery.
e) take land out of production.
35. As a result of the Hawley Smoot Tariff of 1930,
a) American industry grew more secure.
b) duties on agricultural products decreased.
c) American economic isolationism ended.
d) campaign promises to labor were fulfilled.
e) the worldwide depression deepened.
36. In America, the Great Depression caused
a) people to blame the economic system, not themselves, for their problems.
b) a decade-long decline in the birthrate.
c) an increase of foreign investment because prices were so low.
d) the price of common stock to remain low while blue-chip stocks suffered only moderate losses.
e) a shift in the economic philosophy of business.
37. President Herbert Hoover believed that the Great Depression could be ended b doing all of the following except
a) providing direct aid to the people.
b) directly assisting businesses and banks.
c) keeping faith in the efficiency of the industrial system.
d) continuing to rely on the American tradition of rugged individualism.
e) lend funds to feed farm livestock.
38. President Hoover's approach to the Great Depression was to
a) leave the economy alone to work itself out of trouble.
b) nationalize major industries.
c) encourage the states to stimulate spending.
d) blame it on big business.
e) adopt unprecedented federal initiatives.
39. The ___________________ was an 'alphabetical agency' set up under Hoover's administration to bring the government into the anti-depression effort.
a) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
b) National Recovery Administration (NRA)
c) Works Progress Administration (WPA)
d) Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
e) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
40. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established to
a) provide direct economic assistance to labor.
b) make loans to businesses, banks, and state and local governments.
c) outlaw 'yellow dog' (antiunion) contracts.
d) provide money for construction of dams on the Tennessee River.
e) lend money for federal public works projects.
41. The Bonus Expeditionary Force marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand
a) the removal of American troops from Nicaragua.
b) passage of legislation introducing a lower tariff.
c) immediate full payment of bonus payments promised to World War I veterans.
d) punishment for those who had forced unemployed veterans to leave Washington, D.C.
e) housing and health care assistance for veterans.
42. President Hoover's public image was severely damaged by his
a) decision to abandon the principle of 'rugged individualism.'
b) construction of 'Hoovervilles' for the homeless.
c) agreement to provide a federal dole to the unemployed.
d) refusal to do anything to try to solve the Great Depression.
e) handling of the dispersal of the Bonus Army.
43. In response to the League of Nations' investigation into Japan's invasion and occupation of Manchuria,
a) the U.S. became an official member of the League.
b) Japan withdrew its troops.
c) it initiated a boycott of Japanese goods.
d) Japan left the League.
e) the U.S. and China moved toward an alliance.
44. The 1932 Stimson doctrine
a) reversed the U.S.' long-standing interventionist policy in Latin America.
b) committed the U.S. to join the League of Nations' effort to impose economic sanctions against Japan for its invasion of Manchuria.
c) announced the U.S.' willingness to outlaw was as an instrument of national policy.
d) declared that the U.S. would not recognize any territorial acquisition achieved by force of arms.
e) declared Japan and Germany 'rogue states.'
One exception to President Warren G. Harding's policy of isolationism involved in the Middle East, where the United States sought to
A) support a homeland for Jews in Israel.
B) prevent the League of Nations from establishing British and French protectorates in the region.
C) stop the Soviet Union from dominating the area.
D) secure oil-drilling concessions for American companies.
E) curb the rise of Arab nationalism.
26. Which of the following was not a consequence of the American policy of raising tariffs
sky-high in the 1920s?
A) the postwar chaos in Europe was prolonged.
B) international economic distress deepened.
C) the American economy slipped into recession..
D) European nations raised their own tariffs.
E) American foreign trade declined.
27. After the initial shock of the Harding scandals, many Americans reacted by
A) suggesting that Harding resign the presidency so that Calvin Coolidge could take
B) calling for a thorough Congressional investigation.
C) demanding that all those involved be sent to prison.
D) excusing some of the wrongdoers on the grounds that "they had gotten away with
E) demanding the impeachment of the president.
28. The intended beneficiaries of the McNary-Haugen Bill were __________; the intended
beneficiaries of the Norris-LaGuardia Act were __________.
A) farmers; banks
B) banks; railroads
C) railroads; labor unions
D) railroads; farmers
E) farmers; labor unions
29. Which of the following splits did not affect the Democratic party in 1924?
A) Fundamentalists versus Modernists
B) northern liberals versus southern conservatives
C) immigrants versus old-stock Americans
D) urbanites versus suburbanites
E) "wets" versus "drys"
30. Senator Robert La Follette's Progressive party advocated all of the following except
A) opposition to antilabor injunctions.
B) government ownership of railroads.
C) increased power for the Supreme Court.
D) relief for farmers.
E) opposition to monopolies.
32. In the early 1920s, one glaring exception to America's general indifference to the
outside world was its
A) continuing attempt to oust the Communist from power in the Soviet Union.
B) involvement in the World Court.
C) armed intervention in the Caribbean and Central America.
D) involvement in the League of Nations' humanitarian operations.
E) naval buildup
33. America's European allies argued that they should not have to repay loans that the
United States made to them during World War I because
A) the United States was making so much money from Mexican and Middle Eastern oil
that it did not need extra dollars.
B) Germany was not paying its reparations to them, so they could not afford to pay off
C) the amount of money involved was not significant.
D) they had paid a much heavier price in lost lives, so it was only fair for the United
States to write off the debt.
E) the United States had owed them about $4 billion before the war.
34. America's major foreign-policy problem in the 1920s was addressed by the Dawes Plan,
A) aimed to prevent German re-armament.
B) condemned the Japanese aggression against Manchuria.
C) provided a solution to the tangle of war-debt and war-reparations payments.
D) established a ratio of allowable naval strength between the United States, Britain,
E) ended the big-stick policy of armed intervention in Central America and the