Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African. American better themselves individually to achieve equality.Help founded NAACP, thought African American should focus on economic change over political change, influential black leader; his "Atlanta Compromise" speech (1895) proposed blacks accept social and political segregation in return for economic opportunities in agriculture and vocational areas. He received money from whites and built Tuskegee Institute into a powerful education and political machine.
National Negro Business League
Organized by Booker T. Washington; established 320 chapters across the country to support businesses owned and operated by African Americans. Created as an effort to inspire the "commercial, agricultural, educational, and industrial advancement" of African Americans
founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional. to work for racial equality
Leader of African American pioneers know as exodusters, who moved to the Great Plains after the Civil War.
W.E.B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for First black man to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910; He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
Set up Universal Negro Improvement Association to improve African American's self respect and economic status. He encouraged African Americans to move back to Africa., founder of United Negro Improvement Association ;; promotes resettlement of American blacks to own "African homeland", sponsored stores & businesses to keep $ in blacks' pockets ;; inspiration for Nation of Islam
Idea held by Booker T. Washington that African-Americans should cooperate with Southern whites and should not push for political and social equality, but instead should try to make economic gains primarily through vocational training
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist, newspaper editor and, with her husband, newspaper owner. An early leader in the civil rights movement, she documented the extent of lynching in the United States, and was also active in the Women's rights movement and the Women's suffrage movement.
National Association of Colored Women
- "Lifting as We Climb" - organization formed to fight against discrimination and for women's rights, Mary Church Terrell
Mary Church Terrell
Daughter of two former slaves, was one of the first African-American women to earn a college degree. She became an activist who led several important associations and helped to work for civil rights and suffrage. Helped found the National Association of Colored Women, fought for the equal rights for the blacks, her father was a former slave but became a millionaire, in 1953, she led a committee that won a suit to end discrimination in Washington hotels, restaurants, buses, and other public facilities. Helped found the National Association of Colored Women
Madam c.j Walker
an African American woman who owned a bank and who spearheaded health and education reforms during the guilded age, An African-American who began selling beauty products door-to-door, and later by mail. She opened beauty schools, taught her salespeople how to kindly treat the customer. She became one of the wealthiest, most successful women of her time.
grayish weevil that lays its eggs in cotton bolls destroying the cotton (push factor) for migration
advancement of the perspective of the African American a term coined in 1925 by sociologist and critic Alain Locke., African Americans who challenged the caste system that confined dark-skinned Americans to the lowest level of society confronted whites who insisted that race relations would not change. Saw the rise of the NAACP, U.N.I.A. shipping company Black Star Line. There was an extraordinary mix of black artists, sculptors, novelists, musicians and poets in Harlem deliberately set out to create a distinctive African American culture that drew on their identities as Americans and Africans.
U.N.I.A. Universal Negro improvement Association
founded by Marcus Garvey to end racism through seperation of races, universal negro improvement association; founded to end racism through seperation of races
the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals
Means by which leader like web dubois felt blacks had to obtain there rights and freedoms
equipped African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in the trades and agriculture, started by Booker T. Washington
N.A.C.W. ( national association of colored women)
national association of colored women, national association of colored women. founded in 1896 by merging 2 other organizations. nurseries, reading rooms and kindergartens were established with this organization.
National Negro Business League
started by BT washington to to help black aquire finanical and business indepence
colored farmers alliance
started because they couldn't be a part of the all with southern alliance, More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
African Methodist Episcopal church
place of worship, cultural center, and everything else for free African Americans
preach without formal training said to have the calling, but not always the moral and ability to lead, not qualified for one's work; unscrupulous or lacking professional standards
1919 wave of riots across the us , coined by author James Weldon Johnson, is used to describe the summer and autumn of 1919. Race riots erupted in several cities in both the North and South of the United States. The three most violent episodes happened in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Elaine, Arkansas. These were part of a series of 20 or more race riots occurring in the U.S. where African Americans were the victims of physical attacks
Secret information concerning black troop
memo to the French of how the black man is to be treated with regards to racial interactions