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Chapters 7-10

organizing

the deployment of organizational resources to achieve strategic goals

organization structure

the framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided, resources are deployed, and departments are coordinated

organization chart

the visual representation of an organization's structure

work specialization

the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into individual jobs; also called division of labor

chain of command

an unbroken line of authority that links all individuals in the organization and specifies who reports to whom

authority

the formal and legitimate right of a manager to make decisions, issue orders, and allocate resources to achieve organizationally desired outcomes

responsibility

the duty to perform the task or activity an employee has been assigned

accountability

the fact that the people with authority and responsibility are subject to reporting and justifying task outcomes to those avoce them in the chain of demand

delegation

the process managers use to transfer authority and responsibility to positions below themin the hierarchy

line authority

a form of authority in which individuals in management positions have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates

staff authority

a form of authority granted to staff specialists in their area of expertise

span of management

the number of employees reporting to a supervisor also called span of control

tall structure

a management structure characterized by an overall narrow span of management and a relatively large number of heirarchical levels

flat structure

a management structure characterized by an overall broad span of control and relatively few hierarchical levels

centralization

the location of decision authority near top organizational levels

decentralization

the location of decision authority near lower organizational levels

departmentalization

the basis on which individuals are grouped into departments and departments into the total organization

functional structure

the grouping of positions into departments based on similar skills, expertise, and resource use

divisional structure

an organization structure in which departments are grouped based on similar organizational outputs

matrix approach

an organization structure that uses functional and divisional chains of command simultaneously in the same part of the organization

two-boss employee

employees who report to two supervisors simultaneously

matrix boss

the product or functional boss, responsible for one side of the matrix

top leader

the overseer of both the product and functional chains of command responsible for the entire matrix

cross-functional team

a group of employees from various functional departments that meet as a team to resolve mutual problems

permanent teams

a group of participants from several functions who are permanenty assigned to solve ongoing problems of common interest

team-based structure

structure in which the entire organization is made up of horizontal teams that coordinate their activities and work directly with customers to accomplish the organzation's goals

virtual network structure

an organization structure that disaggregates major functions to separate companies that are brokered by a small headquarters organization

modular approach

the process by which a manufacturing company uses outside suppliers to provide large components of the product, which are then assembled into a final product by a few workers

coordination

the quality of collaboration across departments

task force

a temporary team or committee foed to solve a specific short-team problem involving several departments

project manager

a person responsible for coordinating the activities of several departments on a full-time basis for the completion of a specific project

reengineering

the radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed also called business process reengineering

process

an organized group of related tasks and activities that work together to transform inputs into outputs and create value

organizational change

the adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization

ambidextrous approach

incorporating structures and processes that are appropriate for both the creative impulse and for the systematic implementation of innovations

product change

a change in the organization's product or service outputs

technology change

a change that pertains to the organization's production process

creativity

the generation of novel ideas that might meet perceived needs or offer opportunities for the organization

idea incubator

an in-house program that provides a safe harbor where ideas from employees throughout the organization can be developed without interference from company bureaucracy or politics

horizontal linkage model

an approach to product change that emphasizes shared development of innovations among several departments

fast-cycle team

a multifunctional team that is provided with high levels of resources and empowerment to accomplish an accelerated product development project

open innovation

extending the search for and commercialization of new ideas beyond the boundaries of the organization

idea champion

a person who sees the need for and champions productive change within the organization

new-venture team

a unit separate from the mainstream of the organization that is responsible for developing and initiating innovations

skunkworks

a separate, small, informal, and highly autonomous, and often secretive group that focuses on breakthrough ideas for a business

new-venture

a fund providing resources from which individuals and groups can draw to develop new ideas, products, or businesses

people change

a change in the attitudes and behaviors of a few employees in the organization

culture change

a major shift in the norms, values, attitudes, and mindset of the entire organization

organization development (OD)

the application of behavioral science techniques to improve an organization's health and effectiveness through its ability to cope with environmental changes, improve internal relationships, and increase learning and problem-solving capabilities

team building

a type of OD intervention that enhances the cohesiveness of departments by helping memebrs learn to function as a team

survey feedback

a type of OD intervention in which questionnaires on organizational climate and other factors are distributed among employees and their results reported back to them by a change agent

large-group intervention

an approach that brings together participants from all parts of the organization (and may include key outside stakeholders as well) to discuss problems or opportunities and plan for major change

unfreezing

the stage of organization development in which participants are made aware of problems to increase their willingness to change their behavior

change agent

an OD specialist who contracts with an organization to facilitate change

changing

the intervention stage of organization development in which individuals experiment with new workplace behavior

refreezing

the reinforcement state of organization development in which individuals acquire a desired new skill or attitude and are rewarded for it by the organization

performance gap

a dispartiy between existing and desiret performance levels

force-field analysis

the process of determining which forces drive and which resist a proposed change

human-resource management (HRM)

activities undertaken to attract, develop, and maintain an effective workforce within an organization

human capital

the economic value of the knowledge, experience, skills, and capabilities of employees

international human-resource management (IHRM)

a subfield of human-resource mangement that addresses the complexity that results from recruting, selecting, developing, and maintaining a diverse workforce on a global scale

discrimination

the hiring or promoting of applicants based on criteria that are not job relevant

affirmative action

a policy that requires employers to take positive steps to gaurantee equal employment opportunities for people within protected groups

contingent workers

people who work for an organization, but not on a permanent or full-time basis, including temporary placements, contracted professionals, and leased employees

contingent professionals

people, mostly retirees, who bring needed expertise

telecommuting

using computers and telecommunications equipment to perform work from home or another remote location

rightsizing

intentionally reducing the company's workforce to the point where the number of employees is deemed to be right for the company's current situation

matching model

an employee selection approach in which the organization and the applicant attempt to match each other's needs, interests, and values

human-resource planning

the forecasting of human-resource needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected job vacancies

recruiting

the activities or practices that define the desired characteristics of applicants for specific jobs

job analysis

the systematic process of gathering and interpreting information about the essential duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a job

job description

a concise summary of the specific tasks and responsibilities of a particular job

job specification

an outline of the knowledge, skills, education, and physical abilities needed to adequately perform a job

realistic job preview

a recruiting approach that gives applicants all pertinent and realistic information about the job and the organization

selection

the process of determining the skills, abilities, and other attributes a person needs to perform a particular job

application form

a device for collecting information about an applicant's education, previous job experience, and other background characteristics

employment test

a written or computer-based test designed to measure a particular attribute such as intelligence or aptitude

assessment center

a technique for selecting individuals with high managerial potential based on their performance on a series of simulated managerial tasks

on-the-job training (OJT)

a type of training in which an experienced employee "adopts" a new employee to teach him or her how to perform job duties

corporate university

an in-house training and education facility that offers broad-based learning opportunities for employees

mentoring

when an experienced employee guides and supports a less-experienced employee

coaching

a method of directing, instructing, and training a person with the goal of developing specific mangement skills

performance appraisal

the process of observing and evaluating an employees's performance, recording the assessment, and providing feedback to the employee

360-degree feedback

a process that uses multiple raters, including self-rating, to appraise employee performance and guide development

stereotyping

placing an employee into a class or category based on one or a few traits or characteristics

halo effect

a type of rating error that occurs when an employee receives the same rating on all dimensions regardless of his or her performance on individual ones

behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)

a rating technique that relates an employee's performance to specific job-related incidents

compensation

monetary payments (wages, salaries) and nonmonetary goods and commodities (benefits, vacations) used to reward employees

job evaluation

the process of determining the value of jobs within an organization through an examination of job content

wage and salary surveys

surveys that show what other organizations pay incumbents in jobs that match a sample of "key" jobs selected by the organization

pay for performance

incentive pay that ties at least part of compensation to employee effort and performance

exit interview

an interview conducted with departing employees to determine the reasons for their termination

diversity

all the ways in which employees differ

managing diversity

creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for organizational or group performance are maximized while the potential disadvantages are minimized

prejudice

the tendency to view people who are different as being deficient

discrimination

when someone acts out their prejudicial attitudes towards people who are the targets of their prejudice

stereotyping

associating a rigid, exaggerated, and irrational belief with a particular group of people

stereotype threat

a psychological experience of a person who, usually engaged in a task, is aware of stereotype about his or her identity group that suggest he or she will not perform well on that task

ethnocentrism

the belief that one's own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or cultures

glass ceiling

invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions

mentor

higher-ranking organizational member who is committed to providing upward mobility and support to a protege's professional career

organizational behavior

an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations

organizational citizenship

work behavior that goes beyond job requirements and contributes as needed to the organization's success

attitude

a cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way

job satisfaction

a postive attitude toward one's job

organizational commitment

loyalty to and heavy involvement in one's organization

cognitive dissonance

a condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict

perception

the cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information

perceptual selectivity

the process by which individuals screen and select the various stimuli that vie for their attention

perceptual distortions

errors in perceptual judgment that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process

stereotyping

the tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual

projection

the tendency to see one's own personal traits in other people

perceptual defense

the tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas, objects, or peopel that are threatening to them

attribution

judgments about what cause a person's behavior-either characteristics of the person or of the situation

fundamental attribution error

the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another's behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors

self-serving bias

the tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one's successes and the contribution of external factors to one's failures

personality

the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment

Big Five personality factors

dimensions that describe an individual's extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience

locus of control

the tendency to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failrure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally)

authoritarianism

the belief that power and status difference should exist within the organization

Machiavellianism

the tendency to direct much of one's behavior toward the acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for personal gain

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

personality test that measures a person's preference for introversion vs extroversoin, sensation vs intuition, thinking vs feeling and judging vs perceiving

person-job fit

the extent to which a person's ability and personality match the requirements of a job

learning

a change in behavior or performance that occurs as the result of experience

stress

a physiological and emotional response to stimuli that place physical or psychological demands on an individual

type A behavior

behavior pattern characterized by extreme competitiveness, impatience, aggressiveness, and devotion to work

type B behavior

behavior pattern that lacks type A characteristics and includes a more balanced, relaxed lifestyle

role ambiguity

uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular role

role conflict

incompatible demands of different roles

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