Oxygen Rich Pathway of Blood
1. Pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood to the lungs
2. Enters the left atrium
3. Moves through the bicuspid valve (mitral valve)
4. Enters the left ventricle.
5. Moves through aortic valve into aorta.
6. The aorta transports blood to the body.
Oxygen Poor Pathway of Blood
1. Oxygen-poor blood travels from superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava into right atrium.
2. Blood moves through the tricuspid valve (atrid ventricular valve)
3. Next it enters the right ventricle.
4. Moves through pulmonary semilunar valve into the left and right pulmonary arteries.
5. Finally the blood reaches the right or left lung.
Cardiac muscle (myocardium) contracts and pumps blood through the circulatory system. At the cellular level the striations (stipes) in the tissue represent regions in the muscle than can shorten and lengthen. Describe cardiac muscle tissue.
It makes up the walls of the heart. Its contraction pumps blood and accounts for th heart beat. Cardiac muscle combines features of both smooth muscle and skeletal muscle tissue. Like sleletal it has striations, but the contraction of the heart is *involunray for the most part.
Areas where folded plasma membranes between two cells contain adhesion junctions and gap junctions.
Seperates the heart in a right side and aleft side.
Compare veins, arteries,
9. There are 3 types of blood vessels
a. Arteries - large blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues of the body.
b. They have thick wall and can withstand pressure the heart exerts as it contracts and pushes blood into the arteries.
c. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels.
i. Many are so small cells go through in a single file
ii. One cell layer think
iii. Allows exchange across cell (bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues. Removes Co2 and other wastes.
i. Return blood to heart once passed through the capillary system.
ii. Walls of veins are thicker than the wall of arteries.
iii. Blood flow between veins of arms and legs of against gravity.
iv. Large veins have valve to keep from reversing.
What is pulmonary Circulation? Systemic Circulation?
7. Circulatory system is divided into two pathways and function as two separate pumps.
a. Pulmonary circulation carries blood between heart and lungs.
b. Systemic circulation carries blood from heart and rest of body.
Compare the walls of the atria and the ventricles. Which wall is the thickest? Why?
5. The heart is composed of four chambers. The upper chambers that receive blood are the atria. The lower chambers that pump blood out of the heart are the ventricles. Describe the walls of the atria and the ventricles.
a. The walls of atria are thin while the ventricle walls are thicker.
b. Function of right ventricle is to send blood to the lungs.
c. Left ventricle is to send blood to body.
d. Wall of the ventricle are thicker because of pumping action - must provide more force.
What are the functions of the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node?
7. The heartbeat is initiated by two networks of muscle fibers in the heart. The muscle fibers are located in the right atria.
a. Function of sinotrial node (SV) is to initiate heartbeat every 85 seconds.
b. Atrioventricular node (AV) keeps heartbeats regular (called peacemaker). Sends signal to ventricles to contract through the Puckinje.
Where is blood pressure measured? Define systolic and siastolic pressure.
10. Blood pressure - When the heart contracts, it produces a wave of fluid pressure in the arteries. The force of blood on artery walls is known as blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is approximately 120/80.
a. Systolic pressure (1st and larger number) - force felt in the arteries when ventricles contract.
b. Diastolic pressure is the force felt when ventricles relax.
c. Blood pressure is measured in arteries.
List the structure that air passes as it moves from nose or mouth in the lungs.
11. Respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air, blood, and tissues. The pathway of the lungs is: Pharynx (passageway for food and air), air moves through the larynx, bronchi, and lungs.
12. The bronchi divide into bronchides and then into tiny airs sacs composed of alveoli (150 mil in each lung). There are about 150 million alveoli per human lung.
a. When oxygen reaches the air sacs, oxygen diffuses across alveoli into the blood.
b. Carbon dioxide moves from the blood into alveoli to be exaled.
13. Alveolus is composed of squamous epilitheal cells.
a. Elastic fiber surrounds alveoli
b. Air is forced into lungs with a large muscle called the diaphragm.
14. Prior to entering the lungs, it is warmed, moistened, and filtered the nose and mouth. Hair, cilia, and mucus contribute the process.
15. Gas exchange takes places in the alveoli by diffusion.
a. Oxygen enters the blood and combines with hemoglobin.
b. The connection between hemoglobin and oxygen is that iron forms a connection with the oxygen.
16. Describe how Carbon Dioxide is transported in blood where is carried.
a. Most carbon dioxide is transported in form of bicarbonate (HCO 3 -)
b. Carried in blood plasma.