TEST3ANATOMY

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122 terms

The vitreous body
contains the lens.
helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.
contains blood vessels that nourish the retina.
is located between the lens and the iris.
does all of these.

helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.

The lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
moving up and down.
moving in and out.
changing shape.
opening and closing.
dilating and constricting.

changing shape

There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to a different color wavelength of light. These cones are designated
red, yellow, and blue.
red, blue, and green.
red, green, and yellow.
yellow, green, and blue.
red, yellow, and indigo

red blue and green

An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
outer segment.
inner segment.
fovea.
optic disk.
iris.

fovea

A blind spot in the retina occurs where
the fovea is located.
ganglion cells synapse with bipolar cells.
the optic nerve attaches to the retina.
rod cells are clustered to form the macula.
amacrine cells are located.

the optic nerve attaches to the retina.

Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the
auditory ossicles.
cochlea.
oval window.
round window.
tympanic membrane.

tympanic membrane.

A structure that allows the middle ear to communicate with the nasopharynx is the
pinna.
vestibular duct.
tympanic duct.
auditory tube.
external auditory canal.

auditory tube

The basic receptors in the inner ear are the
utricles.
saccules.
hair cells.
supporting cells.
ampullae.

hair cells

The structure that overlies the organ of Corti is the
basilar membrane.
tectorial membrane.
endolymph.
malleus.
vestibular duct.

tectorial membrane.

The structure that separates the cochlear duct from the tympanic duct is the
tectorial membrane.
basilar membrane.
vestibular duct.
organ of Corti.
malleus.

basilar membrane

What we perceive as the pitch of a sound is our sensory response to its
amplitude.
wavelength.
frequency.
intensity.
duration.

frequency

The frequency of a sound is indicated to the nervous system by the
frequency of hair cell vibration.
number of rows of hair cells that are stimulated.
region of the organ of Corti that is stimulated.
movement of the perilymph in the cochlear duct.
frequency of vibration of the tectorial membrane.

region of the organ of coti that is stimulated

When viewing an object close to you, your lens should be more
rounded.
flattened.
convex.
lateral.
medial.

rounded

Damage to the fovea of the eye would interfere with the ability to
focus an image.
regulate the amount of light striking the retina.
bleach visual pigments.
see black and white.
see color.

see color

The following is a list of the steps that occur in the production of an auditory sensation.
1. The pressure wave distorts the basilar membrane on its way to the round window.
2. Movement of the tympanic membrane causes displacement of the malleus.
3. Displacement of the stereocilia stimulates sensory neurons of the cochlear nerve.
4. Movement of the malleus causes movement of the incus and stapes.
5. Distortion of the basilar membrane forces the hair cells of the organ of Corti toward or away from the tectorial membrane.
6. Movement of the oval window establishes pressure waves in the perilymph of the vestibular duct.
The proper sequence for these steps is
2,4,1,6,5,3.
2,4,6,3,5,1.
2,1,4,6,5,3.
2,4,6,1,5,3.
2,5,4,6,1,3.

2,4,6,1,5,3.

The sense of hearing is provided by receptors of the
outer ear.
middle ear.
inner ear.
pinna.
semicircular canals.

inner ear

Night blindness can be treated by administering
vitamin A.
vitamin D.
vitamin E.
vitamin K.
vitamin C.

vitamin a

The central opening in the eye through which light passes is the
conjunctiva.
iris.
pupil.
lacrima.
canthus.

pupil

The ciliary muscle helps to
control the amount of light reaching the retina.
control the shape of the lens.
control the production of aqueous humor.
move the eyeball.
do control the amount of light reaching the retina and control the shape of the lens.

contol the shape of the lens

The pigmented portion of the eye is the
conjunctiva.
cornea.
iris.
pupil.
canthus.

iris

Endocrine cells
are a type of nerve cell.
release their secretions onto an epithelial surface.
release their secretions into the blood.
contain very few vesicles.
do all of these.

release their secretions into the blood

Peptide hormones
are composed by amino acids.
are produced by cells in the adrenal glands.
are derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
are lipids.
are chemically related to cholesterol.

are composed by amino acids

Steroid hormones
are lipids.
are structurally similar to cholesterol.
bind to cell surface receptors.
have characteristics of are lipids and are structurally similar to cholesterol.
have characteristics of all of these.

have characteristics of are lipids and are structually similar to cholesterol

Steroid hormones
bind to receptors on the surface of the cell.
function by way of a second messenger system.
cannot diffuse through the cell membrane.
bind to intracellular receptors.
function by activating camp.

bind to intracellular receptors

Hormones that control the function of the anterior pituitary gland are released from the
thalamus.
medulla oblongata.
hypothalamus.
pineal body.
basal nuclei.

hypothalamus

The hypothalamus controls the secretions of the anterior pituitary by way of
direct neural stimulation.
direct mechanical control.
releasing and inhibiting hormones.
altering ion concentrations in the anterior pituitary.
gap junctions.

releasing and inhibiting hormones

The __________ lies within the abdominopelvic cavity near the border between the stomach and the small intestine.
thymus gland
adrenal gland
pancreas
thyroid gland
testis

pancreas

The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
TSH.
ACTH.
FSH.
LH.
MSH.

TSH

A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ions is
parathyroid hormone.
thyroid hormone.
calcitonin.
glucagons.
oxytocin.

calcitonin

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to rise is
growth hormone.
cortisol.
insulin.
glucagon.
erythropoietin.

glucagon

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is
cortisol.
growth hormone.
insulin.
glucagon.
aldosterone.

insulin

The hormone that is the antagonist of calcitonin is
insulin.
glucagons.
growth hormone.
parathyroid hormone.
thyroid hormone.

parathyroid hormone

Hormones from which of the following glands are responsible for the calorigenic effect?
pituitary gland
adrenal gland
parathyroid gland
thyroid gland
thymus

thyroid gland

Excess secretion of growth hormone prior to puberty will cause
dwarfism.
cancer.
gigantism.
acromegaly.
diabetes.

gigantism

Increased blood calcium levels would result in
increased secretion of calcitonin.
increased secretion of parathyroid hormone.
increased retention of calcium by the kidneys.
increased osteoclast activity.
increased excitability of neural membranes.

increased secretion of calcitonin.

Decreased levels of parathyroid hormone could result in
tetany.
profuse urination.
increased sweating.
depressed immune activity.
all of these.

tetany

In Type II diabetes, insulin levels are frequently normal, yet the target cells are less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This suggests that

the target cells are impermeable to insulin.
the target cells may lack enough insulin receptors.
the target cells cannot convert insulin to an active form.
the target cells have adequate internal supplies of glucose.
none of these is correct.

the target cells may lack enough insulin receptors

This condition is characterized by abnormally high glucose concentrations that overwhelm the reabsorption capabilities of the kidneys.
diabetes mellitus
diabetes insipidus
glucose diabetes
gigantism
all of these

diabetes mellitus

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is also known as
non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Type II.
Type III.
Type I.
diabetes insipidus.

Type I

The endocrine system
releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body.
releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously.
produces effects that can last for hours, days and even longer.
does releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body and produces effects that can last for hours, days and even longer only.
does all of these.

does all of these

Blood returning from the systemic circuit first enters the
right atrium.
right ventricle.
left atrium.
left ventricle.
coronary sulous.

right atrium

The left ventricle pumps blood to
the lungs.
the right ventricle.
the right atrium.
the systemic circuit.
none of these.

the systemic circuit

The function of an atrium is to
collect blood.
pump blood to the lungs.
pump blood into the systemic circuit.
pump blood to the heart muscle.
do all of these.

collect blood

The left and right pulmonary veins carry blood to the
heart.
lungs.
brain.
intestines.
liver.

heart

Which of the following is true regarding cardiac muscle?
Neither summation nor tetany can occur.
Both summation and tetany can occur.
Summation, but not tetany, can occur.
Tetany, but not summation, can occur.
None of these are true.

neither summation nor tetany can occur

The pacemaker cells of the heart are located in the
Purkinje fibers.
SA node.
AV node.
left and right ventricles.
wall of the left ventricle.

SA node

The following are various components of the conducting system of the heart.
1. Purkinje cells
2. AV bundle
3. AV node
4. SA node
5. bundle branches
The sequence in which an action potential would move through this system is
1, 4, 3, 2, 5.
3, 2, 4, 5, 1.
3, 5, 4, 2, 1.
4, 2, 3, 5, 1.
4, 3, 2, 5, 1.

4, 3, 2, 5, 1.

Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the
P wave.
T wave.
S wave.
PR complex.
QRS complex.

QRS COMPLEX

The first heart sound is heard when
the AV valves open.
the AV valves close.
the semilunar valves close.
blood enters the aorta.
the atria contract.

the AV valves close

The P wave of the ECG corresponds to
atrial depolarization.
atrial diastole.
none of these.
ventricular diastole.
ventricular systole.

atrial depolarization

The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the
diastolic volume.
systolic volume.
cardiac reserve.
cardiac output.
stroke volume.

stroke volume

Each of the following factors will increase cardiac output except one. Identify the exception.
increased venous return.
increased parasympathetic stimulation.
increased force of ventricular contraction.
increased heart rate.
increased sympathetic stimulation.

increased parasympathetic stimulation

According to Starling's law of the heart, the cardiac output is directly related to
the size of the ventricle.
the heart rate.
the amount of blood in the circulatory system.
the thickness of the myocardium.
the venous return.

the venous return

As a result of the long refractory period, cardiac muscle cannot exhibit
tone (tonus).
relaxation.
fatigue.
recruitment.
tetany.

tetany

In which situation would the stroke volume be the greatest?
when venous return is increased
when venous return is decreased
when calcium channel blockers are present
when the difference between the end diastolic volume and the end systolic volume is small
when the force of contraction is decreased

when venous return is increased

Under conditions of hypercalcemia,
cardiac muscle cells become lethargic.
cardiac muscle contraction is weak.
none of these occurs.
cardiac muscle cells remain the same.
cardiac muscles become extremely excitable.

cardiac muscles become extremely excitable

The cardioacceleratory center in the medulla oblongata activates __________ neurons.
sympathetic
preganglionic
ganglionic
parasympathetic
postganglionic

sympathetic

Relaxation of the ventricles is called
ventricular systole.
ventricular diastole.

ventricular diastole

The heart is innervated by
both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves.
sympathetic nerves.
parasympathetic nerves.

both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves

Which of the following is longer?
the refractory period of skeletal muscle
the refractory period of cardiac muscle

the refractory period of cardiac muscle

The muscular layer of blood vessels is the
tunica interna.
tunica media.
tunica externa.
tunica intima.
tunica adventitia.

tunica media

Compared to arteries, veins
are more elastic.
have more smooth muscle in their tunica media.
have a pleated endothelium.
have thinner walls.
hold their shape better when cut.

have thinner walls

The blood vessels that play the most important role in the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure are the
arteries.
arterioles.
veins.
venules.
capillaries.

arterioles

The only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluids are the
arteries.
arterioles.
veins.
venules.
capillaries.

capillaries

Blood flow through a capillary is regulated by the
endothelium.
capillary bed itself.
precapillary sphincter.
heart action.
central channel.

precapillary sphincter

Blood moves forward through veins
because the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries.
with the aid of contractions of skeletal muscles.
with the aid of changes in cavity pressure.
because the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries and with the aid of contractions of skeletal muscles only.
by all of these.

all of these

Blood flow through the circulatory system is affected by
pressure differences.
the viscosity of the blood.
the amount of friction in the blood vessels.
the length and diameter of the blood vessels.
all of these.

all of these

Blood osmotic pressure is most affected by changes in the
concentration of plasma sodium ions.
concentration of plasma waste glucose.
concentration of plasma waste products.
concentration of plasma proteins.
number of white blood cells.

concentration of plasma proteins

Each of the following changes will result in increased blood flow to a tissue EXCEPT one. Identify the exception.
increased blood volume
decreased vessel diameter
increased blood pressure
decreased peripheral resistance
relaxation of precapillary sphincters

decreased vessel diameter

The goal of cardiovascular regulation is to
ensure that blood flow changes occur at the appropriate time.
ensure that blood flow changes occur in the appropriate area.
ensure that changes occur without drastically altering blood pressure.
ensure that changes occur without drastically altering blood flow to a vital organ.
ensure all of these.

ensure all of these

Baroreceptors that function in the regulation of blood pressure are located in
the left ventricle.
the brain stem.
the carotid sinus.
the common iliac artery.
all of these.

the carotid sinus

During increased exercise,
vasoconstriction occurs at the active skeletal muscles.
venous return increases.
cardiac output decreases.
stroke volume decreases.
all of these result.

venous return increases

Elderly individuals usually have
elevated hematocrits.
stiff, inelastic arteries.
decreased blood pressure.
increased venous return.

stiff, inelastic arteries

Each of the following factors would increase cardiac output except one. Identify the exception.
increased venous return
decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart
increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart
stimulation of the heart by epinephrine
all of these would increase C.O. Choose this response if "None of the above" qualify as an exception.

all of these would increase C.O. Choose this response if "None of the above" qualify as an exception.

Edema would be likely to form when
the concentration of protein in the blood increases.
hemorrhage occurs.
blood hydrostatic pressure at the capillary decreases
blood osmotic pressure at the capillary decreases.
the blood hydrostatic pressure in a capillary is equal to the blood osmotic pressure.

blood osmotic pressure at the capillary decreases

The vessels that permit exchange of materials between the cells and the blood are termed
capillaries.
arterioles.
arteries.
venules.
veins.

capillaries

Blood pressure is highest in which of the following structures?
arteriole
artery
capillary
vein
venule

artery

Which of the following is greater?
the normal blood volume of the venous system
the normal blood volume of the arterial system

the normal blood volume of the venous system

Which of the following would have the greater effect on peripheral resistance?
decreasing the diameter by ½
doubling the length of a blood vessel

decreasing the diameter by ½

Which of the following is faster?
blood flow in the center of a large vessel
blood flow along the walls of a blood vessel

blood flow in the center of a large vessel

Anatomically, lymph vessels resemble
elastic arteries.
arterioles.
the vena cava.
veins.
muscular arteries.

veins

The thoracic duct drains lymph from
the left side of the head.
the left side of the thorax.
the left arm and shoulder.
the body regions below the diaphragm.
all of these.

all of these

Lymph nodes
produce antibodies from specialized T cells.
monitor the contents of lymph by removing debris and pathogens.
act as a "check station" for cancer cells.
monitor the contents of lymph by removing debris and pathogens and act as a "check station" for cancer cells only.
do all of these.

monitor the contents of lymph by removin debris and pathogens and act as a "check station" for cancer cells only.

In general, lymphocytes
spend little time in the blood.
have relatively long life-spans.
are not evenly distributed in the lymphatic tissues.
do have relatively long life-spans and are not evenly distributed in the lymphatic tissues only.
do all of these.

do all of these

Areas of the spleen that contain large numbers of lymphoid nodules are known as
Peyer's patches.
adenoids.
white pulp.
red pulp.
lymph nodes.

white pulp

The red pulp of the spleen contains large numbers of
red blood cells.
macrophages.
lymphocytes.
neutrophils.
antibodies.

macrophages

The largest collection of lymphatic tissue in the adult body is located in the
liver.
thymus.
tonsils.
spleen.
lymph nodes.

spleen

An inflammatory response is triggered when
red blood cells release pus-forming agents.
T cells release interferon.
mast cells release histamine, serotonin, and heparin.
neutrophils phagocytize bacteria.
blood flow to an area increases.

mast cells release histamine, serotonin and heparin

Immunity that results from antibodies that pass the placenta from mother to fetus is called
active natural
passive natural.
innate.
active artificial.
autoimmunity.

passive natural

. In active artificial immunity,
the immune system attacks normal body cells.
the body is deliberately exposed to an antigen.
the body receives antibodies produced by another person.
the body receives antibodies produced by another animal.
genes for antibodies are introduced into the body.

the body is deliberately exposed to an antigen

The cells responsible for the production of circulating antibodies are
NK cells.
plasma cells.
helper T cells.
cytotoxic T cells.
suppressor T cells.

plasma cells

The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the
NK cells.
B cells.
helper T cells.
cytotoxic T cells.
suppressor T cells.

B cells

Stem cells that will form T cells are modified in the
bone marrow.
liver.
spleen.
thymus.
kidneys.

thymus

Immunoglobulins that are the largest class and are mainly responsible for resistance against viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are
IgA.
IgD.
IgE.
IgG.
IgM.

IgG

The specificity of an antibody is determined by the
fixed segment.
antigenic determinants.
variable region.
size of the antibodies.
the antibody class.

variable region

The binding of an antigen to an antibody can result in
neutralization of the antigen.
agglutination or precipitation.
complement activation.
destruction of the antigen.
all of these.

all of these

In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must
be phagocytized by the lymphocyte.
enter the cytoplasm of the lymphocyte.
bind to the DNA of the lymphocyte.
bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte membrane.
depolarize the lymphocyte membrane.

bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte membrane

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
is responsible for forming lymphocytes.
produces antibodies in lymph glands.
is a group of genes that codes for human leukocyte antigens.
is a membrane protein that can recognize foreign antigens.
is the antigen found on bacteria that stimulates an immune response.

is a group of genes that codes for human lekocyte antigens

Histamine increases blood flow and vascular permeability. This would account for which of the following changes that occur during inflammation?
redness of the inflamed tissue
swelling of the inflamed tissue
heat of the inflamed tissue
the localization of proteins and cells necessary for body defense
all of these

all of these

Blocking the antigen receptors on the surface of lymphocytes would interfere with
phagocytosis of the antigen.
that lymphocyte's ability to produce antibodies.
antigen recognition.
the ability of the lymphocyte to present antigen.
agglutination of the antigen.

antigen recognition

what does myopia mean?

nearsighted, may be caused by eyball to deep, lens unable to flatten enough

what does hyperopia mean?

farsighted, caused by eyeball too shallow, lens unable to accommodate

what does presbyopia mean?

related to hyperopia, but caused by age, loss of elasticity in lens. (not a round spherical lens)

What three events muyst occur inorder to bring an image in to focus?

accomodation by the lens, constriction of pupil, convergence of the eyes.

what is meant when they say accomodation by the lens

contraction of the ciliary muscles causes the lens to become more spherical

what is meant by constriction of the pupil?

increases the depth of focus, greater proportion of the light passes through center of lens

what is meant by convergence of the eyes

medial rotation of the eyes so that each eye is directed towards the object.

What does your brain do in order for you to see?

flips the image, compares images between two eyes, fills in the blanks due to blinds spots, compares to your object memory.

The optic disk

blood vessels enter eyeball, blind spot

fovea centralis and macula lutea

specialized region for high cone density(color and acuity)

What are the retinal neurons

photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells, interplexiform cells

Rods (photoreceptors)

black and white only, presence/absence. 120 million rods, hgihest density in peripheral areas

Cones(photoreceptors)

Blue green and red color, provide info about the wavelength of light, highest density in fovea centralis(no rods) and macula(few rods). about 7 million cones

What photopigment responds in a human eye?

rhodopsin

What protein creates rhodopsin

Vitamin A

How do photoreceptors react without light(dark current)?

the photoreceptors are depolarized, Na is diffusing into the cell thereby raising its Vm, and triggereing the release of neurotransmitters to bipolar cells, not an AP

How do photoreceptors react in light

closes some or all of the special light sensitive ion channels in the membrane of the photoreceptors, therefoore the cell's membrane potential becomes more neg(repolarizing) and less Trs are released. Bipolar cell reads this as the absorption of a photon

How does the retinal function

photon hits cone/rod, Na channel closes in cone/rod membrane, cone/rod becomes more negative, cone/rod decreases release of transmittters, bipolar cell reads this as light presence, bipolar cell stimulates ganglion cell, ganglion cell sends AP to visual cortex of brain.

What neuron stimulates APs

ganglion cells, not rods or cones.

How many bipolar cells are there?

two, one that depolarizes and one that hyperpolarizes

What system is amplitude-modulated and what system is frequency-modulated, the nervous or endocrine system?

nervous system is frequency-modulated and the endocrine system is amplitude-modulated

The endocrine system

can cause a response in a wide range of itssues and be sustained for a long period. horomones travel throughout the body to relatively distant targets, it can take a while to initiate a response.

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