believed that Germany belonged to a so-called Aryan race, superior to all others
conquer Soviet Union, resettled German peasants there and use the Slavic people as slave labor to build the Third Reich
part of Germany; it was a demilitarized area; Hitler sent in troops
area not permitted to have weapons or fortifications
satisfying reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers to achieve stability/peace
dreamed of a new Roman Empire, invaded Ethiopia, sent troops to Spain (Leader of Italy)
agreement between Italy and Germany recognizing their common political and economic interest
Germany and Japan, promising a common front against communism
union with Austria; threatened with invasion; forced annexation
an area northwestern Czechoslovakia inhabited largely by Germans (Hitler demanded that Germany be given the area)
meeting between Germany, Italy, France, and Britain giving Germany the Sudetenland
British Prime Minister; appeased Hitler proclaiming "peace in our time"
Soviet dictator whom Hitler offered control of Eastern Poland and the Baltic States
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Soviet Union and Germany agreed not to attack each other; gave Hitler freedom to attack Poland
Start of WWII
September 1, 1939, Germany attacks Poland, 2 days later Britain and France declare war on Germany
formerly known as Manchuria, Japanese control
tried to avoid conflict with Japan; greater threat from the Communist
The New Asian Order
Japan attempts to control Asia and teach Asians how to modernize
restrictions intended to enforce international law
"lightening war", used panzer divisions (300 tanks) supported by airplanes
a series of concrete and fortifications armed with heavy artillery along the French/German border.
city in northern France where heroic efforts of the British Royal Navy and civilians helped evacuated 338,000 Allied troops.
puppet government controlled by the Germans in the Southern 2/5 of France.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States, denounced the aggressors, but followed an isolationist policy.
abstaining form alliances and other international political and economic relations.
refusal to take sides or become involved in wars between other nations
German air forces
Battle of Britain
German bombing of industrial and military areas, then bombing of British cities- British would not surrender.
December 7, 1941 Japan attacked the US naval base in Hawaii
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Japan controlled most of southeast Asia and Western Pacific
Hitler declares war on the US
Great Britain, United States, Russia-agreed to fight until Axis powers surrendered unconditionally.
Germany, Italy, Japan
General Erwin Rommel
led Germany forces in Africa
British forces stopped Rommel's troops
Stalingrad (Eastern Front)
major industrial center on Volga River (Russia) where the Germans were forced to surrender (Feb 1943)
Battle of the Coral Sea
American naval forces stopped Japan from invading Australia
were the US defeated Japanese navy and established naval superiority- considered the turning point in the war in Asia.
US general- moved into the Philippines through New Guinea and South Pacific islands.
US would capture some Japanese-held islands and bypassing others while moving toward Japan
Britain's Prime Minister, a symbol of British strength/determination
allies took Rome June, 1944
allied forces under General Eisenhower landed history's greatest naval invasion (June 6, 1944)
allies liberated Paris, August 1944
Battle of Kursk (July 1943)
Soviets defeated Germany in greatest tank battle
committed suicide April 1945
victory in Europe May 7, 1945
resistance fighters (Italians who shot Mussolini
Harry S. Truman
US president 1945, made the decision to drop the first nuclear bombs
Japanese city where the first atomic bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945
Japanese city that the 2nd atomic bomb was dropped on August 9, 1945
victory over Japan August 14, 1945
leader of the SS, in charge of German resettlement plans in the east
Slave Labor in Germany
European workers, removed from their homelands, labored in Germany
physical extermination of a people, Hitler's "final solution" for Jews
special strike forces to round up, execute, and bury Jews in mass graves
head of security services, had the task of administering the Final Solution
the death camps
Einsatzgruppen was too slow, so Nazis built special death camps
largest of the extermination centers built in Poland
the death toll
Germans killed millions of Jews, Roma (Gypsies), and Slavic people, and more
mas slaughter of the European Jews
why it continued
1. allies exaggerated German atrocities during WWI.
2. some pretended not to notice.
3. others chose to concentrate on ending the war.
people who assisted the enemy and helped the Nazis hunt down the Jews
Children in the War
1. Jewish children first selected for gas chambers.
2. evacuated to avoid bombings
3. millions orphaned
4. many fought- Hitler Youth
New Order in Asia
Japanese conquered southeast Asia under slogan "Asia for Asiatics"
Asia for Asiatics
slogan used by Japan in conquering Southeast Asia-recruited native peoples in conquered countries for military units, public works, labor forces.
the act of assembling and preparing for war.
only country that used women in battle
racial tensions developed-African Americans migration, segregated military units, Japanese American internment
Hitler refused to cut consumer goods or to increase armaments trying to keep those at home happy
Hitler's minister of armaments and munitions-able to triple production of armaments despite air raids
"divine wind," Japanese pilots in suicide missions against US ships
General Hideki Tojo
Japan's Prime Minister (1941-1944) opposed female employment so brought in Korean and Chinese laborers.
The Bombing of Cities
bombing civilian population to force governments to make peace
in spite of extensive damage, Londoners moral remained high
what the British called German air raids
100,000 died but did not sap the German morale nor destroy their industrial capacity.
fesring high US casualities, Truman decided to drop the atomic bomb.
period of political tensions-ideological conflict between US and USSR.
The Tehran Conference (1943)
the Big Three (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill) decide final assult on Germany and post war partisipation
The Yalta Conference (1945)
Stalin wanted a buffer between Soviet Union and Western countries, and United Nations was created, Germany's unconditional surrender-divided into 4 zones.
Postdam Conference (1945)
Truman demanded free elections in Eastern Europe...Stalin NOT; agreed to trials for war criminals at Nuremburg.
A New Struggle
Winston Churchill declared that "an iron curtain" divided Europe.