Age of Anxiety
Time of lost peace, unrest, instability, financial crisis, suffering, war, and eventually the Cold War.
After what event does the Cold War begin?
In order to intimidate the Germans so they could start making their payments (reparations from the Treaty of Versailles), what did the French do?
Sent troops into Ruhr Valley
The passive resistance to the French Occupation by the Germans caused...
During Germany's inflation, why did America step in to help?
Helped Germans pay reparations
Guaranteed post-WWI borders
Treaty of Locarno
The idea to make war "illegal"
End of prosperity / Period of low economic activity and unemployment
What were two major causes that lead to the Great Depression?
Wealth gap between rich and poor and stock market crash
When was Black Tuesday?
October 29, 1929
October 29, 1929
Where did Black Tuesday occur? How did is spread?
America. Trade and lending of money to Europe
What was Franklin Roosevelt's new deal as president?
To increase public works
Why did Roosevelt's new deal as president (to increase public works) not help America's economy?
They were spending money that they didn't have
What got America (and most of the world) out of the Great Depression? How?
WWII. Manufacturing at home and men had jobs as soldiers
Whose rule ended in Germany in 1919?
The German democratic state established the ____ (1919-933) which created problems.
Why was France the strongest power in Europe after WWI?
Reparations kept them strong
When was the Popular Front Coalition in France?
Alliance of left wing groups including communists, led by Leon Blum. (France)
Popular Front Coalition
Working people in Britain
Who wrote, "General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money?"
John Maynard Keynes
British economist / Went against the traditional idea that depressions could solve themselves without government interference / Strongly believed that the government needed to employ people in public work type jobs even if the government went into debt
John Maynard Keynes
Why was there an increase interest in Marxism during the Depression?
People thought that if everyone was equal, there would not be a depression
What is one major cause of WWII?
How did the "Age of Anxiety" contribute to the rise of totalitarian dictators?
People wanted people who are charismatic and offered a simple solution
Established the first fascist European movement.
Glorified the state above the individual, emphasized strong central government led by a dictator and any opposition was suppressed, no religion
Who started a new party: Fascio di Combattimento ("....")?
Mussolini. League of Combat
In the ____, Mussolini overthrew the king (Victor Immanuel) and Rome and took controlled of the government and established himself as the leader (called himself, Il Duce).
March on Rome
Mussolini's first moved into Ethiopia in 1935, why?
Slaughtered Ethiopians for revenge
Hitler took over part of an extremist group and named it... or ... for short.
National Socialist German Workers Party. Nazi
Hitler screamed in a pub about how he was going to take over the government and went to jail for only 6 months.
Beer Hall Putsch
What was Hitler's famous literary work called?
When did Hitler write Mein Kampt?
While in jail
What was Hitler's key element to his attraction?
National pride and more lebensraum
What is Lebensraum?
How did Hitler gain his power?
Won an election against Hindenburg
What was Hitler's militia calleed?
SA or brown shirts (storm troops)
____ named Hitler as Chancellor because he was getting old and expected to be a good leader. This marked the start of the ____.
Hindenburg. Third Reich
Who did Hitler blame the Fire in the Reichstag on?
Full dictatorial power. Hitler take the name Fuhrer.
When Hitler as threatened that the SAs might take his power, what did he do?
Created the SS to kill the SAs
Who led the Night of Long Knives (SS vs. SAs)?
Giving in to an aggressor to keep peace.
Police of Appeasement
What is the policy of the Japanese?
Asia for the Asians
Hitler's pact with Japan was called...
Union between Germany and Austria
Was the Soviet Union a possible threat?
Promise not to attack each other between Stalin and Hitler.
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
In trade of not being involved in WWII, what did Germany receive (thanks to Hitler)?
Half of Poland
Yugoslavia = ...
Land of the slaves
Who proclaimed them self king and renamed the country to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia?
Leader of Yugoslavia / No ethnic problems during his reign / Used a lot of violence and fear to control the people
How did Spain monarchy end?
Spanish Civil War
Who was the Cold War between?
U.S. and Russia
"Strength Through Joy"
Kraft durch Freude
What was the new affordable car created in the 1930's? Why was it created?
Kd-F Wagon. To make people feel like they had some freedom
Elimination of children with diseases or deformities. What was this action also called?
Euthanasia. Action T4
Why did Hitler want Germany to practice Euthanasia?
He think they are a waste of money and resources
What was the basis of Interwar Art of WWI? (During the Age of Anxiety)
Started in Switzerland, anti-war life had no purpose
Started mid-1920's, influences by Dada. Link to the world of dreams with real life. Used fantasies, nightmares, and dreams.
Why were Nazi's not ok with Surrealism art?
They didn't want people to express their individualism
What did Hitler mean by, "No state lasts longer than the documents of its culture"?
Each part of history is known by its art and documents. Art was intended to glorify the party
Where did Jazz emerge?
What did the loose beat of Jazz seem to capture in the 20's and 30's?
The new freedom of time
Reveal the innermost thoughts of all characters
Passage of the character during an ordinary day / Everything that is going on in their thoughts and actions on a day to day basis
Search for meaning in an uncertain world
What two major things did Albert Einstein discover?
Theory or relativity and Zionism
The want of their own country and homeland by the Jews
Unconscious believer / Thought people had uncontrollable desires
Flew first 33 hour solo flight across the Atlantic