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medial

toward the inside

pes cavus

a foot with a high longitudinal arch

pes planus

a foot with a flat longitudinal arch

intrinsic muscle

a muscle that originates and inserts within the foot or hand

superficial

toward the surface of the body

lateral

toward the outside

innervation

the process of sending a nerve impulse from the central nervous system to the periphery to induce a muscle to contract

interdigital

located between the digits (i.e. the fingers and toes)

articulation

the point where two or more adjacent bones create a joint

dorsiflexion

movement of the foot toward the upper, or dorsal, surface

plantar flexion

movement of the foot toward the bottom, or plantar, surface

inversion

inward movement, or turning, of the foot

eversion

outward movement, or turning, of the foot

abduction

movement away from the midline of the body

adduction

movement toward the midline of the body

pronation

movement of the forearm to place the palm facedown; or, while non-weight bearing, a combination of dorsiflexion, eversion, and foot abduction

supination

movement of the forearm to place the palm faceup; or, while non-weight bearing, a combination of plantar flexion, inversion, and foot adduction

anterior

the front or top surface of a limb

extrinsic muscle

a muscle that originates in the leg or forearm and inserts into the foot or hand

origin

the point where muscle attaches to bone; usually refers to the proximal attachment of the muscle

posterior

the near or bottom surface of a limb

retinaculum

a soft-tissue fibrous structure designed to stabilize tendons or bones

dorsum

the top of the foot or the back of the hand

static stretching

stretching a muscle in a stationary position

strain

an overstretching (first degree), partial tearing (second degree), or complete rupture (third degree) of any component of the muscle-tendon unit

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon or its sheath

overuse injury

chronic injury resulting from repetitive stress

plantar fasciitis

inflammation of the plantar fascia at its attachment to the calcaneus

plantar neuroma

inflammation or irritation of a plantar nerve

shin splints

a colloquial term for pain in the leg that originate from any number of possible sources

periosteum

outer layer of bone

orthotic

a commercially available insert designed to realign and alter the biomechanics of the foot

valgus

alignment of a joint or stress to the joint that places the distal bone in a lateral direction; the "knock-kneed" position of the knee joint

varus

alignment of a joint or stress to the joint that places the distal bone in a medial direction; the "bow-legged" position of the knee joint

anterior cruciate ligament

a ligament crossing through the knee joint that attaches from the anterior tibia to the posterior femur. the anterior cruciate ligament limits anterior movement of the tibia from the femur as well as rotation of the tibia

menisci

the intra-articular cartilage of the knee

avascular

the absence of blood supply

quadriceps femoris

the muscle group in the anterior though consisting of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis

hamstrings

a muscle group in the posterios thigh consisting of the semitendinosis, semimembranosus, an biceps femoris

bursa

a fluid sac that reduces friction between two structures

contralateral

refers to the opposite extremity

open-chain exercise

exercise in which the distal segment of the extremity does not bear weight

closed-chain exercise

exercise in which the distal segment of the extremity is fixed to the ground

quadriceps (q)-angle

the degree of obliquity of the quadriceps

electrical muscle stimulation

use of electrical current to induce a muscle to contract

biofeedback

feedback provided through the visual observation or an audio tone

innominate bones

two flat bones that form the pelvic girdle; each consists of an ilium, pubis, and ischium

circumduction

a combination of abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension

spica

a figure-eight wrap that incorporates the thigh and hip or the arm and shoulder

iliac crest

the superior border of the iliac bone; the colloquial term for a contusion to this area is hip pointer

myositis ossificans

the formation of bone within a muscle that has suffered a contusion

hematoma

a collection of pooling blood

rotator cuff

the muscle group in the shoulder consisting of the subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor

acromioclavicular joint sprain

a sprain to the acromioclavicular or coracoclavicular ligaments of the joint formed bu the distal clavicle and the acromion process of the scapula; also known colloquially as a separated shoulder

subluxation

a partial dislocation of a joint

dislocation

a complete separation of two articulating bones

exostosis

abnormal bone growth

epicondylitis

inflammation of an epicondyle

avulsion

the tearing away of a tendon or ligament attachment from bone

insertion

the point where muscle attaches to bone; usually refers to the distal attachment of the muscle

extensor hood

the anatomical tendon configuration on the dorsal aspect of the finger

pollicis

pertaining to the thumb

anatomical snuffbox

the space at the base of the thumb created by the extensor pollicis longus and brevis tendons

thenar eminence

intrinsic muscle of the thumb that include the abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, and the adductor pollicis.

baseball finger

the colloquial term for an avulsion of the extensor digitorium tendon from the distal phalanx of the finger; also known as mallet finger

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