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Mary Whiton Calkins

1863-1930; Memory, personality, and dreams; American psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality, and dreams; established one of the first U.S. psychology research laboratories; first woman president of the American Psychological Association

Charles Darwin

(1809-1882) - English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859

Sigmund Freud

(1856-1939) - Austrian physician and founder of psychoanalysis which is both a comprehensive theory of personality and a form of psychotherapy; emphasized the role of unconscious determinants of behavior and early childhood experiences in the development of personality and psychological problems; key ideas include the id, ego, and superego; the psychosexual states of development; and the ego defense mechanisms. Proposed that dream images are disguised and symbolic expressions of unconscious wishes and urges. Theorized that psychological symptoms are the result of unconscious and unresolved conflicts stemming from early childhood.

G. Stanley Hall

(1844-1924) - Evolution and Developmental psychology - American psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the United States; founded the American Psychological Association

William James

(1842-1910) - Functionalism - American philosopher and psychologist who founded psychology in the United States and established the psychological school called functionalism. Wrote Principles of Psychology. Proposed that the subjective experience of consciousness is not episodic, but an ongoing stream of mental activity. Developed the James-Lange theory of emotion: emotions arise from the perception of body changes

Abraham Maslow

Maslow (1908-1970) - Humanism - American humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation. Emphasized the study of healthy personality development; Developed the hierarchical model of human motivation based on the idea that people will strive for self-actualization, the highest motive, only after more basic needs have been met; key ideas include the hierarchy of needs and self-actualization.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

People are innately motivated to satisfy a progression of needs, beginning with the most basic physiological needs. Once the needs at a particiular level are satisfied, the individual is motivated to satsify the needs at the next level, steadily progressing upward. The ultimate goal is self - actualization, the realization of personal potential. From bottom: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self - actualization

Ivan Pavlov

(1849-1936) - Behaviorism - Russian physiologist whose pioneering research on learning contributed to the development of behaviorism; discovered the basic learning process that is now called classical conditioning.

Carl Rogers

(1902-1987) - Humanism - Amercian psychologist who founded the school of humanistic psychology. Developed a theory of personality and form of psychotherapy that emphasized the inherent worth of people, the innate tendency to strive toward one's potential, and the importance of the self-concept in personality development; key ideas include the actualizing tendency and unconditional positive regard. developed client-centered therapy

B.F. Skinner

(1904-1990) - Behaviorism - American psychologist and leading proponent of behaviorism; developed a model of learning called operant condition; emphasized studying the relationship between environmental factors and observable behavior

Edward B. Titchener

Structuralism; British-born American psychologist who founded structuralism, the first school of psychology

Margaret Floy Washburn

(1871-1939) - Animal Cognition - American psychologist who was the first woman to earn a doctorate in psychology in the United States; published research on mental processes in animals

John B. Watson

(1878-1958) - Behaviorism - American psychologist who founded behaviorism, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and rejecting the study of mental processes

Wilhelm Wundt

(1832-1920) - Experimentalism - German physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory 1879. Father of experimental psychology

Pierre Paul Broca

1824-1880; French surgeon and nueroanatomist who in 1861 discovered an area on the lower left frontal lobe of the cerbral cortex that, when damaged, produces speech distubances but no loss of comprehension

Roger Sperry

1913-1994; American psychologist who received the Nobel prize in 1981 for his pioneering research on brain specialization in split - brain patients

Kar Wernicke

1848-1905; German neurologist who in 1874 discovered an area on the left temporal lob of the cerebral cortex that, when damaged, produces meaningless or nonsensical pseech and difficulties in verbal or written comprehension

Karl Duncker

1906-1940; German Gestalt psychologist who is best known for his studies on the perception of motion; also studied the perception of pain and the effects of past experience on perception; immigrated to the United States in 1938

Max Wertheimer

1880-1943; German psychologist who founded Gestalt psychology in the early 1900s, studied the optical illusion of apparent movement, and described principles of perception

Ernest R. Hilgard

1904-2001; American psychologist who extensively studied hypnosis and advanced the neodissociation theory of hypnosis

J. Allan Hobson

1933 - today; contemporary Amercan psychiatrist and neurobiologist who has extensively researched sleep and dreaming; proposed the activation - synthesis model of dreaming

Albert Bandura

1925; American Psychologist who experimentally investiaged observational learning, emphasizing the role of cogntive factors

John Garcia

1917; American psychologist who experimentally demostrated the larning of taste aversions in animals, a finding that challenged several basdic assumptions of classical conditioning

Robert A. Rescorla

1940; American psychologist who experimentally deomstrated the invovlement of cognitive processes in classical conditioning

Shepard Siegel

1940; Canadian psychologist who has extensively studied the role of classical conditioning and conditioned compensaotry responses in the development of drug tolerance, drug withdrawal sypmtoms, and drug relapse

Edward Thorndike

1874-1949; American psychologist who was the first to experimnetlaly study animal behavior and document how active behaviors are influenced by their consequences; postulated the law of effect.

Suzanne Corkin

1937; American neuropsychologist who has extensively investigated the neural basis of memory including several investiagtions of the famous amnesia patient H.M

Herman Ebbinghaus

1850-1909; German psychologist who originated the scientific study of forgetting; plotted the first forgetting curve, which describes the basic pattern of forgetting learned information over time

Eric Kandel

1929; American neurobiologist, bornin Austria, who won a Nobel Prize in 2000 for his work on the neural basis of learning and memory in the sea snail "Aplysia"

Karl lashely

1890-1958; American physiological psychologist who thought memory was localized and attempted to find the specific brain location of particular memories

Elizabeth Loftus

1944; American psychologist who has conducted extensive research on the memory distortions that can occur in eyewitness testimony

Brenda Milner

1918; Canadian neuropsychologist whose groundbreaking research on the role f brain structures and fucntions in cogntive processes helped establish neuropsychology as a field; extensively studied the famous amnesia patient H.M.

George Sperling

1934; American psychologist who identified the duration of visual sensory memory in a series of classic experiments in 1960: flashed the imgages of 12 letters on a screen for 1/20 a second. The letters were arranged in four rows of three letters each. Subjects focused their attention on the scree and immediately after the screen went blank, reported as many letters as they could remember.

Richard Thompson

1930; American psycholgist and neuroscientist who has conducted extensive research on the neurobiological foundations of learning and memory

Alfred Binet

1857-1911; French psychologist who, along with french psychiatrist Theodore Simon, developed the first widely used intelligence test

Howard Gardner

1943; Contemporary American psychologist whose theory of intelligence states that there is not one intelligence, but multiple independent itelligences

Charles Spearman1863-1945

British pscyhologist who advanced the theory that a general intelligence factor, called the "g" factor, is responsible for overall intellectual functioning

Robert Sternberg

1949; Contemporary Amercian psychologist whose "triarchic theory of intelligence" identifies three forms of intelligence (analytic, creative, and practical)

Lewis Terman

1877-1956; American psychologist who translated and adapted the Binet-Simon intelligence test for use in the United States; he also began a major longitudinal study of the lives of gifted children in 1921

Louis L. Thurstone

1887-1955; American psychologist who advanced the theory that intelligence is composed of several primary mental abilities and cannot be accurately described by an overall general or "g" factor measure.

David Wechsler

1896-1981; Amercian psychologist who developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the most widely used intelligence test.

Walter Cannon

1871-1945; American pysiologist who developed an influential theory of emtoin called the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

Edward L. Deci

1942; American psychologist who, along with Richard M. Ryan, developed self-determination theory, which contends that optimal psychological functioning and growth can occur only if the psycholgical needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied

Paul Ekman

1934; American psychologist and emotion researcher who is best known for his work in classifying basic emotions, analyzing facial expressions, and demonstrating that basic emotions and facial experssions are culturally universal

Richard Lazarus

1922-2002; American psychologist who promoted the cognitive perspective in the study of emotion; propose the cognitive-mmediation theory of emotion: emotions result from the cognitive appraisal of a situation's effect on personal well-being.

Richard M. Ryan

1953; Amercian psychologist who, along with Edward L. Deci, developed self-determination theory, which conteds that optimal psycholgical functioning and growth can occur only if the psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are satisfied.

Mary D. Salter Ainsworth

1913-1999; American psychologist who devised the Strange Situation procedure to measure attachment; contributed to attachment theory

Renee Baillargeon

1954; Canadian-born psychologist whose studies of cognitive development during infancy using visual rather than manual tasks challenge beliefs about the age at which object permanence first appears

Erik Erikson

1902-1994; German-born American psychoanalyst who proposed an influential theory of psychological development throughout the lifespan

Lawrence Kohlberg

1927-1987; American psychologist who proposed an influential theory of moral development

Jean Piaget

1896 - 1980; Swiss child psychologist whose influential theory proposed that children progress through distinct stages of cognitive development

Lev Vygotsky

1896-1934; russian psychologist who stressed the importance of social and cultural influences in cognitive development

Sandra Lipsitz Bem

1944 American psychologist who has conducted extensive research on sex roles and gender identity; proposed gender schema theory to explain gender-role development

Viginia E. Johnson

1925; American behavioral scientist who, along with William H. Masters, conducted pioneering research in the field of human sexuality and sex therapy.

Willam H. Masters

1915-2001; Amercian physician who, along with V.E. Johnson, conducted pioneering research in the field of human sexuality and sex therapy

Alfred Adler

1870-1937; Austrian physician who broke with Freud and developed his own psychoanalytic theory of personality, which emphasized social factors and the motivation toward self-improvement and self-realization; key ideas include the inferiority complex and the superiority complex

Albert Bandura

1925; contemporary American psychologist who is best known for his research on observational learning and his social cognitive theory of personality; key ideas include self-efficacy beliefs and reciprocal determinism.

Raymond Cattell

1905-1998; British-born American psychologist who developed a trait theory that identifies 16 essential source traits or personality factors; also developed widely used self-report personality test, the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)

Hans Eysenck

1916-1997; German-born British psychologist who developed a trait theory of personality that identifies the three basic dimensions of personality as neuroticism, extraversion, and psychoticism.

Karen Horney

1885-1952; German-born American psychoanalyst who emphasized the role of social relationships and culture in personality; sharply disagreed with Freud's characterization of female psychological development, especially his notion that women suffer from penis envy; key ideas include basic anxiety and womb envy.

Carl G. Jung

1875-1961; Swiss psychiatrist who broke with Freud to develop his own psychanalytic theory of personality, which stressed striving toward psychological harmony; key ideas include the collective unconscious and archetypes.

Solomon Asch

1907-1996; American social psychologist who is best known for his pioneering studies of conformity

John M. Darley

1938; contemporary American social psychologist who, along with co-researcher Bibb Latane, is best known for his pioneering studies of bystander intervention in emergency situations

Bibb Latane

1937; contemporary American social psychologist who, along with co-researcher John Darley, is best known for his pioneering studies of bystander intervention in emergency situations.

Stanley Milgram

1933-1984; American social psychologist who is best known for his controversial series of studies investigating destructive obedience to an authority.

Muzafer Sherif

1906-1988; American social psychologist who is best known for his Robbers Cave experiments to study prejudice, conflict resolution, and group processes

Robert Ader

1932; American psychologist who, with immunologist Nicholas cohen, first demonstrated that immune system responses could be classically conditioned; helped establish the new interdisciplinary field of psychoneuroimmunology.

Walter B. Cannon

1871-1945; American physiologist who made several important contributions to psychology, espeically in the study of emotions. Described the fight-or-flight, which involves the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system

Janice Kiecolt-Glaser

1951; American psychologist who, with immunologist Ronald Glaser, has conducted extensive research on the effects of stress on the immune system.

Richard Lazarus

1922-2002; American psychologist who helped promote the cognitive perspective on emotion and stress; developed the cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping with co-researcher Susan Folkman

Martin Seligman

1942; American psychologist who conducted research on explanatory style and the role it plays in stress, health, and illness

Hans Selye

1907-1982; Canadian endocrinologist who was a pioneer in stress research; defined stress as "the nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed on it" and described a three-stage response to prolonged stress that he termed the general adaptation syndrome

Aaron T. Beck

1921; American psychiatrist who founded cognitive therapy (CT), a psychotherapy based on the assumption that depression and other psycholgical problems are caused by biased perceptions, distorted thinking, and inaccurate beliefs.

Albert Ellis

1913; American psychologist who founded the cognitive psychotherapy called rational-emotive therapy (RET), which emphasizes recognizing and changing irrational beliefs.

Mary Cover Jones

1896-1987; American psychologist who conducted the first clinical demonstrations of behavior therapy.

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