Respiratory System

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Ch 7 Terms

respiratory system

brings oxygen into body for transportation into cells, removes carbon dioxide and some water waste from body, divided into upper and lower respiratory tracts

upper respiratory tract

nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea

lower respiratory tract

consists of the bronchial tree and lungs

thoracic cavity

rib cage, protects lower respiratory tract

nose

air enters body through this

nasal septum

wall of cartilage hat divides nose into two equal sections

cilia

thin hairs located just inside nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris

mucous membranes

specialized tissues that line respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems

mucus

secreted by mucous membranes, protects and lubricates these tissues. In the nose _______ helps to moisten, warm, and filter the air as it enters

olfactory receptors

nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell, important to sense of taste, located in mucous membrane in upper part of nasal cavity

tonsils

form protective circle lymphatic tissue around entrance to respiratory system

paranasal sinuses

air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane, are located in bones of skull, connected to the nasal cavity via short ducts

frontal sinuses

located in frontal bone just above eyebrows, infection here can cause severe pain in this area

sphenoid sinuses

located in sphenoid bone, close to optic nerves - infection here can damage vision

maxillary sinuses

larges of paranasal sinuses, located in maxillary bones, infection here causes pain in posterior maxillary teeth

ethmoid sinuses

located in ethmoid bones, irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from orbital (eye) cavity by only a thin layer of bone

pharynx

aka throat, receives air after it passes through nose

nasopharynx

first division, posterior to nasal cavity and continues downward to behind mouth. This first part of pharynx is used only by respiratory system for transport of air and opens into the oropharynx

nas/o

WORD PART: nose

-pharynx

WORD PART: throat

oropharynx

second division of pharynx, portion that is visible when looking into mouth. It is shared by respiratory and digestive systems and transports air, food, and fluid downward to the laryngopharynx

or/o

WORD PART: mouth

laryngopharynx

third division of pharynx. Air, food, and fluids continue downward to openings of esophagus and trachea where air enters the trachea and food and fluids flow into the esophagus

larynx

aka voice box, triangular chamber located between pharynx and trachea

thyroid cartilage

protects and supports by series of nine separate cartilages, largest and when enlarged, commonly known as Adam's Apple

vocal cords

contained by larynx, during breathing, cords are separated to let air pass, during speech, they close together, and sound is produced as air is expelled from the lungs, causing _______ _______ to vibrates against each other

epiglottis

lid-like structure located at base of tongue, swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so that food does not enter trachea and lungs

trachea

aka windpipe, tube located directly in front of esophagus that extends from nexk to chest, its role is to transport air to, and from, the lungs

bronchi

formed where trachea divides into two branches known as primary bronchi, aka bronchial tree

bronchioles

within lungs, each primary bronchus divides into these subdividings

alveoli

aka air sacs, very small grape-like clusters found at end of each bronchiole, each lung contains millions of alveoli that are filled with air from bronchioles

lungs

organs of respiration, divided into lobes

lobe

subdivision or part of an organ

right lung

has three lobes: superior, middle, and inferior

left lung

has two lobes: superior and inferor, slightly smaller because of the space the heart takes up

mediastinum

cavity located between lungs, cavity contains connective tissue and organs, including heart and its veins and arteries, the esophagus, trahcea, bronchi, thmus gland, and lymph nodes

pleura

thin, moist, and slippery membrane that covers the inner surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage

parietal pleura

outer layer of pleura that lines walls of thoracic caivty, covers diaphrag,. forms sac containing each lung

visceral pleura

inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung

pleural cavity

aka pleural space, airtight area between layers of pleural memranes, space contains thin layer of fluid that allows membranes to slide easily during breathing

diaphragm

muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen, contraction and relaxation of this muscle that makes breathing possible

phrenic nerves

stimulate diaphragm and cause it to contract

respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that is essential to life, single respiration consists of one inhalation and one exhalation

inhalation

act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward, action causes thoracic cavity to expand, produces vacuum within thoracic cavity that draws air into lungs

exhalation

act of breathing out, as diaphragm relaxwa, it moves upward, causing thoracic cavity to become narrower, action forces air out of lungs

external respiration

act of bringing air into an out of lungs and exchanging gases from this air, as air is inhaled into alveoli, oxygen immediately passes into the surrounding capillaries and is carried by RBCs to all body cells, at same time, waste product carbon dioxide that has passed into bloodstream is transported into airspaces of lungs to be exhaled

internal respiration

exchange of gases within cells of body organs, cells, tissues

otolaryngologist

ENT

pulmonologist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of lungs and associated tissues

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COPD, lung disease in which it is hard to breather. Damage to bronchi partially obstructs them, making it difficult to get air in and out. People with COPD are usually smokers/former smokers also have chronic bronhitis and emphysema

chronic bronchitis

airways become inflamed and thickened, and there is an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells, results in excessive mucus production

emphysema

progressive loss of lung function that is characterized by 1) decrease in the total number of alveoli, 2) enlargement of the remaining alveoli, 3) progressive destruction of walls of remaining alveoli, as alveoli destroyed, breathing becomes increasingly rapid, shallow, and difficult, lungs expand and chest sometimes assumes an enlarged barrel shape

asthma

chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughin, and wheezing

airway inflammation

swelling and clogging of airways with mucus, usually occurs after airway has been exposed to inhaled allergens

bronchospam

contraction of smooth muscle in walls of bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze airway shut

excerise-induced bronchospasms

(EIB) are the narrowing of airways that develops after 5-15 minutes of physical exertion, this also can be due to cold weather or allergies

common cold

upper respiratory infections and acute nasopharyngitis among terms used to describe this

allergic rhinitis

commonly referred to as an allergy, allergic reaction to airborne allergens that causes an increased flow of mucus

croup

acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough

diphtheria

now largely prevented through immunization, is an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract, this bacteria produce toxins that can damage that heart muscle and peripheral nerves

epistaxis

aka nose-bleed, usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders

influenza

aka flu, acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection that is spread by respiratory droplets and occurs most commonly in epidemics during the colder months

pertussis

aka whooping cough, is a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of a paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness, and a noisy inspiration

rhinorrhea

aka runny nose, watery flow of mucus from nose

sinusitis

inflammation of sinuses

pharyngitis

aka sore throat, inflammation of pharynx

laryngoplegia

paralysis of larynx

laryngospasm

sudden spasmodic closure of larynx

aphonia

loss of ability of larynx to produce normal speech sounds

phon-

WORD PART: voice or sound

dysphonia

any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or cracking of a boy's voice during puberty

laryngitis

inflammation of larynx, voice loss due to inflammation

tracheorrhagia

bleeding from mucous membranes of trachea

bronchorrhea

excessive discharge of mucus from bronchi

pleurisy

aka pleuritis, inflammation of pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath, caused by influenza or by damage to the lung beneath the pleura

pleurodynia

pain in pleura that occurs in relation to breathing movements

pneumothorax

accumulation of air in pleural space causing a pressure imbalance that prevents the lung from fully expanding or can cause it to collapse, this can have an external cause such as a stab wound through the chest wall, can be caused by rupture in the pleura that allows air to leak into the pleural space

pleural effusion

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, this produces a feeling of breathlessness because it prevents lung from fully expanding

effusion

escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels into tissues or into body cavity

hemothorax

collection of blood in the pleural cavity

hemoptysis

coughing up blood or bloodstained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as the result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage

pyothorax

is the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between layers of pleural membrane, aka empyema of the pleural cavity

empyema

collection of pus within a body cavity

acute respiratory disease syndrome

(ARDS) is not a specific disease. it is a form of sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, making breathing extremely difficult. syndrome is caused by trauma (injury), sepsis (systemic infection), diffuse (wide spread) pneumonia, or shock

atelectasis

collapse of part or all of a lung by blockage of air passages or by very shallow breathing

atel-

WORD PART: incomplete

-ectasis

WORD PART: stretching or enlargement

collapsed lung

unable to expand to receive air due to a pneumothorax or atelectasis

pulmonary edema

accumulation of fluid in lung tissues

pnemorrhagia

bleeding from lungs

tuberculosis

infectious disease caused bu Myobacterium tuberculosis usually attacks lungs

pneumonia

serious infectino or inflammation of lungs in which smallest bronchioles and alveoli fill with pus and other liquid

pneumon-

WORD PART: lung

bronchopneumonia

localized form of pneumonia that often affects bronchioles and surrounding alveoli

lobar pneumonia

affects larger areas of lungs, often including one or more sections, or lobes, of a lung.

aspiration pneumonia

can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs

aspiration

inhaling or drawing foreign substance into upper respiratory tract

bacterial pneumonia

often caused by streptococcus pneumoniae, only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination

mycoplasma pneumonia

milder but longer lasting form of disease by bacteria mycoplasma pneumoniae, sometimes referred to as walking pneumonia because patient is not bedridden

pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

opportunistic infection caused by fungus pneumocystis carinii

viral pneumonia

caused by several different types of viruses, accounts for approximately half of all pneumonias

interstitial lung disease

group of almost 200 diseases that cause inflammation and scarring of alveoli and their supporting structures

interstitial fibrosis

inflammation and thickening of walls og alveoli

fibrosis

condition in which normal tissue is replaced by fibrotic (hardened) tissue

pneumoconiosis

fibrosis of lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after prolonged environmental or occupational contact

anthracosis

aka coal miner's pnemoconiosis or black lung disease, caused by coal dust in lungs

asbestosis

caused by asbestos particles in lungs and usually occurs after working with asbestos

bryssinosis

aka brown lung disease, is caused by inhaling cotton dust into lungs and usually occurs after working in a textile factory

byssin-

WORD PART: cotton dust

asbest-

WORD PART: asbestos

silicosis

cuased by inhaling silica dust in lungs and usually occurs after working in occupations including foundry work, quarrying, ceramics, glass work, sandblasting

silic-

WORD PART: glass

pulmonary fibrosis

formation of scar tissue in lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty in breathing. This condition can be caused by autoimmune disorders, infections, dust, gases, toxins, and some drugs

cystic fibrosis

genetic disorder in which lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus, treatment for ___________ includes digestive enzymes are administered to aid digestive system, antibiotics are administered to control lung infections, postural drainage is performed with the patient positioned at various angles to allow gravity to help drain secretions from lungs, chest percussion is also performed to remove excess mucus from teh lungs

lung cancer

leading cause of cancer death in US, condition in which cancer cells form in tissues of lung, important risk factors for lung cancer are tobacco smoking and inhaling second-hand smoke, most commonly used to diagnose are chest xrays and sputum cytology

sputum cytology

procedure in which sample mucus is coughed up from lungs and then examined under a microscope to detect cancer cells

eupnea

easy or normal breathing

apnea

absence spontaneous respiration

sleep apnea syndromes

group of potentially fatal disorders in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep for long-enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels

bradypnea

abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths per minute

tachypnea

abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually more than 20 breaths per minute

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

pattern of laternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, follwed by hyperapnea

dyspnea

aka shortness of breath, difficult or labored breathing, shortness of breath is frequently one of the first symptoms of heart failure, it can also be caused by strenuous physical exertion or can be due to lung damage that produces dyspnea even at rest

hyperpnea

commonly associated with exertion, breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest

hypopnea

shallow or slow respiration

hyperventilation

abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety, change causes blood gas levels due to decrease in carbon dioxide at cellular level

airway obstruction

aka choking, occurs when food or foreign object blocks airway and prevents air from entering or leaving lungs can be alleviated using Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrust maneuver

anoxia

absence of oxygen from body's gases, blood, tissues

asphyxia

condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function, in this life-threatening condition, oxygen levels in the blood drop quickly, carbon dioxide levels rise, and unless that patient's breathing is restored within a few minutes, death or serious brain damage follows

asphyxiation

aka suffocation, any interruption or normal breathing resulting in asphyxia. Can be caused by an airway obstruction, drowning, smothering, choking, or inhaling gases such as carbon monoxide instead of air

cyanosis

bluish discoloration of skin caused by lack of adequate oxygen

hypercapnia

abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

capn-

WORD PART: carbon dioxide

hypoxemia

condition of having below-normal oxygen level in blood

ox-

WORD PART: oxygen

hypoxia

condition of having below-normal oxygen levels in body tissues and cells, less severe than anoxia

altitude hypoxia

aka altitude sickness, condition that can be brought on by decreased oxygen in air at higher altitudes, usually 8,000 feet

respiratory failure

aka respiratory acidosis, condition in which level of oxygen in blood becomes dangerously low or level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high

smoke inhalation

damage to lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli and prevent normal exchange of gases

sudden infant death syndrome

(SIDS) aka crib death, sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy sleeping infant between ages of 2 weeks and 1 year. Happens more often among babies who sleep ont heir stomach

bronchoscopy

visual examination of bronchi using a bronchoscope

chest imaging

aka chest x-ray, valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung tumors, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, emphysema

laryngoscopy

visual examination of larynx using a laryngoscope inserted through moth and placed into pharynx to examine larynx

peak flow meter

handheld device often used to test those with asthma to measure how quickly the patient can expel iar

polysomnography

aka sleep apnea study, measures physiological activity during sleep and is mot often performed to detect nocturnal defects in breathing associated with sleep apnea

somn-

WORD PART: sleep

pulmonary function tests

group tests that measure volume and flow of air by utilizing a spirometer, these tests are measured against a norm for indivdual's age, height, and sex

spirometer

recording device that measures the amount of air inhaled or exhaled and the length of time required for each breath

spir-

WORD PART: breathe

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