Chapter 9 Study Guide The Cell Cycle and Cellular Reproduction

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This study guide is based off of Biology by Sylvia Mader 10th edition. The chapter is number 9 titled The Cell Cycle and Cellular Reproduction. In the learn based tool, prompt with term and copy the "whole" answer and paste it into the answer box.

Which of the following is NOT true concerning mitosis?
A. Plant cells lack centrioles while animal cells do not.
B. Both plant and animal cells undergo cytokinesis.
C. Mitosis allows growth and increase in size in both plants and animals.
D. Animal cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis while plant cells do not.

D. Animal cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis while plant cells do not.

Cancer cells require many nutrients, which are supplied by blood vessels. The growth of new blood vessels to cancerous tissue is called:
A. angiogenesis
B. metastasis
C. carcinogenesis
D. apotosis

A. angiogenesis

Apoptosis
A. is programmed cell death.
B. is a process that acts to decrease the number of somatic cells.
C. frees the fingers and toes of the human embryo from their 'webbed' structure to independent structures
D. All of the choices are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

The region that contains the genetic information in a bacterial cell is called the
A. nucleus.
B. nucleoid.
C. nucleolus.
D. nucleosome.
E. nucleoprotein.

B. nucleoid.

Virtually all specialized cells of multicellular organisms
A. develop through mutation from less specialized cells of the organism.
B. contain more genetic material than less specialized cells of the same organism.
C. contain less genetic material than less specialized cells of the same organism.
D. have the same amount of DNA and the same number of chromosomes as all other cells of the organism.

D. have the same amount of DNA and the same number of chromosomes as all other cells of the organism.

If a parent cell has 48 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each daughter cell have after mitosis and cytokinesis occurs?
A. 24 chromosomes
B. 48 chromosomes
C. 12 chromosomes
D. 96 chromosomes

B. 48 chromosomes

Interphase:
A. occupies the majority of the cell cycle
B. includes G1, S and G2 stages
C. results in an increase in cell size
D. all of the above
E. A and B only

D. all of the above

Eukaryotic chromosomes
A. consist of both DNA and protein.
B. may occur as chromatin.
C. contain histones responsible for packaging DNA to fit into a small space.
D. All of the choices are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

Enzymes that bring about apoptosis are:

called caspases.
True False

True

Enzymes that bring about apoptosis are:

are ordinarily held in check by inhibitors.
True False

True

Enzymes that bring about apoptosis are:

can be unleashed by internal or external signals.
True False

True

Enzymes that bring about apoptosis are:

are only present in the cell immediately before apoptosis begins.
True False

False

Generally, animals build an organism using the diploid number of chromosomes. However, insects in the order of ants, wasps and bees can use a haploid-diploid system where adults of one sex are formed with a haploid number of chromosomes. This would mean that
A. a single set of chromosomes is sufficient to code for a functional individual.
B. a female could determine the sex of the offspring by fertilizing or not fertilizing an egg.
C. the males and females are not equally "related" to their mothers considering the proportion of genes held in common.
D. All of the choices are true.
E. this system in no way differs from regular diploid organisms.

D. All of the choices are true.

What is the result of a cell not meeting the criteria to pass the G1 checkpoint?
A. The cell cycle halts.
B. The cell may enter the G0 stage
C. The cell may undergo apoptosis.
D. All of the above.
E. A and B only.

D. All of the above.

Which is NOT true about the chromosomes of a multicellular organism?
A. They are made up of DNA and protein.
B. Each chromosome is replicated into two chromatids during the S phase of interphase.
C. Each chromosome separates into two daughter chromosomes by binary fission.
D. All cells contain chromosomes that carry the same genetic information.

C. Each chromosome separates into two daughter chromosomes by binary fission.

The function of mitosis is:
A. growth of the organism and tissue repair.
B. to ensure that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information.
C. asexual reproduction in some species.
D. All of the choices are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

In the life cycle of animals, ________ have the haploid number of chromosomes.
A. all body cells
B. sperm and egg cells
C. muscle and nerve cells
D. skin and blood cells

B. sperm and egg cells

Which statement is NOT true about eukaryotic chromosomes?
A. There is only one chromosome of each type in each body cell.
B. Chromosomes contain both DNA and associated histones.
C. Chromosomes condense from chromatin at the start of mitosis.
D. Chromosomes disperse back into chromatin at the end of mitosis.
E. Chromosomes are not located within the nuclear envelope during mitosis.

A. There is only one chromosome of each type in each body cell.

What codes for proteins that promote the normal cell cycle and prevents apoptosis?
A. Tumor suppressor genes
B. Oncogenes
C. Caspases
D. proto-oncogenes

D. proto-oncogenes

The diploid (2n) number of chromosomes for humans is
A. 23.
B. 24.
C. 44.
D. 46.
E. 48.

D. 46.

The haploid (n) number of chromosomes for humans is
A. 23.
B. 24.
C. 44.
D. 46.
E. 48.

A. 23.

Which statement is NOT true about mitosis?
A. Mitosis is a process that duplicates and divides the nuclear contents only.
B. Mitosis produces two daughter cells that contain the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
C. Mitosis produces two daughter cells that contain the same kinds of chromosomes as the parent cell.
D. Mitosis uses a diploid (2n) parent cell to form daughter cells containing a haploid number(n) of chromosomes.
E. Mitosis is involved in development of a fertilized egg into a multicellular organism.

D. Mitosis uses a diploid (2n) parent cell to form daughter cells containing a haploid number(n) of chromosomes.

Which represents the correct sequence of stages in the cell cycle?
A. G1, G2, S, M
B. G1, G2, M, S
C. G1, M, G2, S
D. G1, S, G2, M

D. G1, S, G2, M

Below the skin are "stem cells" that divide, with some cells continuing the stem cell line and others being pushed toward the surface to flatten and die and be sloughed off. In the bone marrow other stem cells produce erythrocytes that lose their nucleus and function for a few months in the bloodstream before they too die. Such "dead end" cells that reproduce no further
A. leave the cell cycle in a G0 phase, which immediately follows telophase.
B. leave the cell cycle in a G3 phase, which immediately follows G2.
C. halt in the midst of the S phase.
D. continually cycle but simply fail to go through cytokinesis.
E. reverse from G2 to G1.

A. leave the cell cycle in a G0 phase, which immediately follows telophase.

What factors are evaluated before a cell is allowed to proceed through the G1 checkpoint?
A. growth signals
B. availability of nutrients
C. the integrity of cellular DNA
D. all of the above
E. A and C, but not B

D. all of the above

The critical checkpoints that control the cell cycle are at the:
A. M to G1 stage and G2 to M stage.
B. S to G2 stage and G2 to M stage.
C. G1 to S stage and G2 to M stage.
D. M to G1 stage and S to G2 stage.

C. G1 to S stage and G2 to M stage.

During which stage of the cell cycle is cell growth and replication of organelles most significant?
A. M phase
B. G1 phase
C. G2 phase
D. S phase
E. G0 phase

B. G1 phase

Which stage is most associated with a cell that is unable to divide again, such as a muscle or nerve cell?
A. M phase
B. G1 phase
C. G2 phase
D. S phase
E. G0 phase

E. G0 phase

Which sequence of stages in mitosis is correct?
A. prophase, anaphase, prometaphase, metaphase, telophase
B. prophase, telophase, anaphase, prometaphase, metaphase
C. prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
D. telophase, anaphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase
E. anaphase, prometaphase, metaphase, prophase, telophase

C. prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

In some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytokinesis. This results in:
A. cell death
B. a multinucleated cell
C. cells arrested in the G0 phase
D. cells with no nucleus
E. uncontrolled cell division

B. a multinucleated cell

What occurs in anaphase?
A. Centrioles move to opposite poles.
B. Chromosomes move to opposite poles.
C. Chromosomes line up along the equator of the dividing cell.
D. The nuclear envelope disappears.
E. The nuclear envelope is constructed.

B. Chromosomes move to opposite poles.

Which does NOT occur in telophase?
A. Cytokinesis is under way.
B. The nuclear envelope is being reconstructed.
C. The centromeres split apart.
D. Chromosomes de-condense into chromatin.
E. The nucleolus reforms.

C. The centromeres split apart.

Cytokinesis in plant cells differs from this process in animal cells because
A. the plant endoplasmic reticulum forms a cell plate.
B. microtubules are laid down in a plywood-like cell plate pattern.
C. the Golgi apparatus produces vesicles that migrate along microtubules and fuse to become a cell plate.
D. the inner plasma membrane divides by cytokinesis as in animal cells and then secretes a cellulose cell wall.
E. asters coalesce to form a fibrous plate that reinforces with cellulose.

C. the Golgi apparatus produces vesicles that migrate along microtubules and fuse to become a cell plate.

Binary fission in bacteria differs from mitosis because
A. the chromosome copies attach to the plasma membrane and are pulled apart by cell growth.
B. the chromosome is a simple DNA strand without complex proteins and no spindle forms.
C. there is no nuclear membrane to break down and rebuild.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. A and B only.

D. All of the choices are correct.

Oncogenes are all of the following EXCEPT:
A. mutated proto-oncogenes
B. cancer causing genes
C. genes that stimulate uncontrolled cell divisions
D. tumor suppressor genes

D. tumor suppressor genes

Which of the following is NOT true about cancer cells?
A. They never fully differentiate.
B. They exhibit contact inhibition.
C. They exhibit uncontrolled growth.
D. They exhibit disorganized growth.
E. They may undergo metastasis.

B. They exhibit contact inhibition.

Which is NOT correctly associated with cancer?
A. Angiogenesis forms new blood vessels and brings nutrients and oxygen to the tumor.
B. The disorganized mass of cells is encapsulated and does not invade adjacent tissue.
C. Metastasis establishes new tumors distant from the site of the primary tumor.
D. Cells have receptors to adhere to basement membranes, then secrete proteinase enzymes to invade underlying tissues.

B. The disorganized mass of cells is encapsulated and does not invade adjacent tissue.

Angiogenesis:
A. is the growth of blood vessels into the tumor
B. is directed by additional mutations in tumor cells
C. bring nutrients and oxygen to a tumor
D. all of the above
E. A and C only

D. all of the above

Although cancer may originate in many regions of the body, many patients die from cancerous growth in the lungs, lymph glands, or liver. This is most readily explained as
A. spreading of cancer by angiogenesis.
B. metastasis occurring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect.
C. proteinase enzymes making cancer particularly damaging to these tissues.
D. growth anywhere but in these organs is called benign.
E. due to these organs simply being more susceptible to cancer.

B. metastasis occurring more commonly in organs that have a filter effect.

Apoptosis refers to cell death and
A. is always biologically detrimental to an organism.
B. is merely the accumulation of genetic errors.
C. is any failure of the genetic machinery to work properly.
D. is a failure in the translation or transcription mechanism.
E. can be programmed and is essential to normal development.

E. can be programmed and is essential to normal development.

The purpose of therapeutic cloning is:
A. to produce an individual to the donor of the nucleus
B. to produce specialized tissue cells
C. to stimulate cells that have been arrested in the S phase
D. none of the above

B. to produce specialized tissue cells

What phase of mitosis is pictured at right?
http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5571752761/
A. prophase
B. prometaphase
C. metaphase
D. anaphase
E. telophase

D. anaphase

What is (are) the structures designated by the letter 'A'.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5572342268/
A. spindle fibers
B. centrioles
C. chromosomes
D. kinetochore microtubules

C. chromosomes

What phase of mitosis is pictured at right?
http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5572342268/
A. prophase
B. prometaphase
C. metaphase
D. anaphase
E. telophase

C. metaphase

Generally, complex organisms do require more genes to control their synthesis and organization than do primitive organisms. However, the numbers of chromosomes vary from ants with 2, molds with 8-14, humans with 46, potatoes with 100 and the crayfish with 200! Some birds and insects have chromosomes that dwindle in size into obscurity, so it is not possible to establish a diploid number.
A. there must be no relationship between amount of genetic information and complexity of the organism.
B. the number of genes per chromosome may vary among organisms, preventing a simple relationship between chromosome number and complexity.
C. birds and insects probably cannot follow the same mitotic laws as other organisms.
D. All of the choices are correct.

B. the number of genes per chromosome may vary among organisms, preventing a simple relationship between chromosome number and complexity.

The event that signals the start of anaphase is
A. division of the centromeres to separate sister chromatids.
B. migration of the centrioles to opposite poles of the nuclear space.
C. a cleavage furrow starts to form.
D. asters disappear.

A. division of the centromeres to separate sister chromatids.

Cloning can only be carried out using adult stem cells.
True False

False

Contact inhibition stops normal cells from dividing when they come in contact with neighboring cells, but this is not functional in cancer cells.
True False

True

Generally, brain and nerve cells are not able to regenerate after injury because they have left the cell cycle and are unable to return.
True False

True

Viruses and chemical exposure can cause mutations in proto-oncogenes which can lead to cancer.
True False

True

Organisms produced as a result of mitosis exhibit a great deal of genetic variation.
True False

False

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