The Magna Carta & Hundred Years War

13 terms by christinecrais 

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Henry the 2nd

- the first plantagenet king. Normans are the first dynasty, plantagenets are the second, Lancaster are the fourth, then Yorks, then Tudors, then Stuarts, then Hanovers/Windsor.
-when he comes to the throne, he needs to be a good king if there are other claimants! He was a very good king.
-He made everyone in England follow one law that was his law. He wanted one system of justice for all of England, rules form 1154-1189. He has people go around and see what is done in terms of crime and punishment, because he doesn't want to impose something that people will hate. So he comes up with a law code that is for everyone this is English COMMON LAW, it is called this because it is common to all of England. So he establishes common law. HE wanted it to be infitting with what they already did, not draconian.
-He also sets up a system to make sure the law is forced throughout England, establishes grand juries and petit juries.
-When Henry the Second died, he had four sons, the one who was supposed to take his place, Henry, died, Richard left for the crusades, so he leaves John in control. When Richard died, John took the throne, He rules from 1199 to 1216. People already didn't like him and now he's king.

John's Unpopularity

The Reason He is Unpopular
-He is constantly losing wars, they always fight to get parts of France but he always loses. Kings are supposed to end up with more land then they started but he had less in the end, called John Lackland.
-Heavy taxes, always having to raise an army and fleet so that raises taxes. He gets into argument with pope over who should become archbishop of Canterbury.
-John is excommunicated and an interdict is placed upon England. He gets into argument with pope over who should become archbishop of Canterbury. So he becomes even more unpopular.
-Forced loans. He is always looking for money. If you didn't lend him money he will send you to prison and if you did he will never give it back. Only affected nobles.
-In 1215, a group of nobles surrounded him on a field and forced him to sign a document that they wrote up called the Magna Carta. Runnymede is where this happened. Magna Carta means great charter. We don't know if he abided by it because he died soon after.
-This is the beginning of limited monarchy in England, meaning that the king cant do whatever he wants and Magna Carta really started ths. It restricts the power of the king. It doesn't apply to common people, just protection for the Nobles.
-NOT DEMOCRATIC
-Two principals of Americas legal system that come from the English legal system are due process of law and habeas corpus.

Habeas Corpus

To have the body. Cant hold you without charging you. (without cause.)

Due Process of Law

you cant take away someone's life liberty or property without due process of law. Government has to follow their own rules etc. Can't imprison us just because you want to.

The Magna Carta

-In 1215, a group of nobles surrounded John on a field and forced him to sign a document that they wrote up called the Magna Carta. Runnymede is where this happened. Magna Carta means great charter. We don't know if he abided by it because he died soon after.
-This is the beginning of limited monarchy in England, meaning that the king cant do whatever he wants and Magna Carta really started ths. It restricts the power of the king. It doesn't apply to common people, just protection for the Nobles.
-NOT DEMOCRATIC
-Two principals of Americas legal system that come from the English legal system are due process of law and habeas corpus.
Due process-you cant take away someone's life liberty or property without due process of law. Government has to follow their own rules etc. Can't imprison us just because you want to.
-Habeus corpus- To have the body. Cant hold you without charging you. (without cause.)

Battle of Agincourt

(1415)-Led by Henry the 5th, he had just taken throne two years ago, land caster; he is determined to lead an army himself into France in hopes of conquering more French territory. He organizes an army at great expense. They gave him a lot of money. He landed on coast of France and wants to get to a place called Callay that is in England's control. The French try to prevent that from happening. That's how the war happens. The place where they meet is a field called Agincourt. The English army was really depleted, because a lot were sick and then died. By the time the battle took place everyone was sick. They meet the French at Agincourt. Henry 5th was 28 at the time, leads the troops himself, the French king isn't fighting. The English troops are outmatched five to one! Henry gives a rousing speech to get his army to fight called ST. CRISPIN'S DAY SPEECH. Henry goes to survey the field and his friend says we are about to die we have no people. English lost 200 people and the French lost 6,000 in the battle!

England and Frances Relationship

-2 main phases of the hundred years war.
-William the conqueror is succeeded by all these people. Some countries make it clear that women can't take the throne etc. Never been a ruling queen of France yet. England however, doesn't have that rule, so it makes it more likely to have a lot of claimants. In England, the king has a daughter and the daughter has a son. When they think of who should follow the king, they have to think about if they need to find another line or go through her son. Steven and Matilda are both claiming the throne and there is a civil war going on. Finally they resolve the war and they agree to stop fighting and Steven will stay on throne and when he dies it will go to her son.
-The reason the English king thinks he can be king of France because repeatedly they tried to marry French women to get more land there. So they have a lot of connections to France and the nobility there. A lot of France was also under English control. They are trying to control more French land and strengthen their claim to the French throne. Some people in France also didn't mind the idea of being mixed with England, a really complicated issue.
-The French king was much older then Henry, after he won at Agincourt, he agreed to have his daughter marry Henry and the next generation can be the ruler of both England and France. Her name is Margret. They have a child but Henry dies when that child is 5 months old so you cant let him be the king, the kid grows up to be actually insane. So the deal didn't really come about.

Joan of Arc

-Last phase of hundred years war.
-Young French girl, at age of 12 says she receives visions from the archangel Michael. Supposedly she was out sewing under a tree. She said the visions told her to help drive the English out of France. What was going on in France at the time... The old king of France had died and there was an heir to the throne called a DAUPHIN( crowned prince, heir to French throne). They were usually crowned in Reemes, which was under English control so they cant coronate him.
-Joan decides that one of the things she needs to do is help the Dauphin get crowned. So she tries to get to dauphin which is hard to do so she dresses in boys clothes so people wouldn't pay much attention to her. It takes several attempts and when she finally gets there, she tells him the prediction of the Battle of Orleans so he finally starts listening to her. She tells him about visions so he has church question her to see if shes crazy and they said shes not crazy but is insisitent that she has visions and is sent by god. So the Dauphin agrees to have her.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

-was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages. As well as being Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, she was queen consort of France (1137-1152) and of England (1154-1189).
-Henry is married to Eleanor of Aquitaine. She was the sole heir of Aquitaine and was the wealthiest women of France she had no brothers, the much older king married her before and she only had daughters so he had his marriage enalled, she's still a rich women but has a rep as a girl maker.
- Now Henry and her have four sons together. Had Richard the Lion Hearted, Henry, john, and Jeffery. Now their sons can control France, Normandy, and England.

-Eleanor became engaged to the 9 years younger Henry II, Duke of the Normans, her cousin within the third degree.
-154 her husband ascended the throne of the Kingdom of England, making Eleanor Queen of the English. Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry eight children: five sons, three of whom would become king, and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. She was imprisoned between 1173 and 1189 for supporting her son Henry's revolt against her husband, King Henry II.
-Eleanor was widowed on 6 July 1189. Her husband was succeeded by their son, Richard the Lionheart, who immediately moved to release his mother. Now queen mother, Eleanor acted as a regent for her son while he went off on the Third Crusade. Eleanor survived her son Richard and lived well into the reign of her youngest son King John. By the time of her death she had outlived all of her children except for King John and Eleanor, Queen of Castile.

Circuit Judge

someone who goes around to different towns and asks what needs to be helped or dealt with since last time he visited. He will be less biased because he doesn't live there.

Grand Jury and Petit Jury

-is a group of people whose job it is to tell the judge about the cases that actually need to be heard. Now the judge has heard from the grand jury and is then heard by the petit jury, that actually gives the verdict.
-jury determines verdict, Judge gives sentence

English Legal System

-When henry comes to the throne, he needs to be a good king if there are other claimants! He was a very good king.
-He made everyone in England follow one law that was his law. He wanted one system of justice for all of England, rules form 1154-1189. He has people go around and see what is done in terms of crime and punishment, because he doesn't want to impose something that people will hate. So he comes up with a law code that is for everyone this is English COMMON LAW, it is called this because it is common to all of England. So he establishes common law. HE wanted it to be infitting with what they already did, not draconian.
-He also sets up a system to make sure the law is forced throughout England, establishes grand juries and petit juries.
-A circuit judge is someone who goes around to different towns and asks what needs to be helped or dealt with since last time he visited. He will be less biased because he doesn't live there.
-The job of a grand jury is a group of people whose job it is to tell the judge about the cases that actually need to be heard. Now the judge has heard from the grand jury and is then heard by the petit jury, that actually gives the verdict.
-Jury determines verdict, Judge gives sentence.
-Everyone is happy and says it's a good idea, however, he immediately comes into conflict with the church. Because they are governed by canon law. So Henry had to deal with the Archbishop of Canterbury, the highest ranking church official of England. He said that it didn't apply to the church because of the clergy. Henry didn't agree, he said that if they violate the church laws, they can punish him, but if he violates one of my laws, then I get to punish him.

Church vs Henry vs Becket

-Everyone is happy and says it's a good idea, however, he immediately comes into conflict with the church. Because they are governed by canon law. So Henry had to deal with the Archbishop of Canterbury, the highest ranking church official of England. He said that it didn't apply to the church because of the clergy. Henry didn't agree, he said that if they violate the church laws, they can punish him, but if he violates one of my laws, then I get to punish him. This is a theoretical discussion UNTIL a priest murders a little girl. Needless to say, he wants him arrested in his court and the punishment was death, the church said that it was obviously a bad thing, but they will deal with him and have no death penalty, he will say prayers and tell god hes sorry. Henry then says this is no longer theoretical this is real, so he wants the priest tried in his court. In the midst of this fight, the Archbishop dies.
- Henry has a friend named Thomas a Becket, he is a priest, but, he and Henry have been friends for years. So Henry appoints Becket as the Archbishop of Canterbury. Now, he thinks that the Archbishop will now always side with HIM, BUT RIGHT AS HE IS ALREADY APPOINTED, Becket says im sorry I can only side with one master and that is god and the church. HENRY IS PISSSSED.
- Thomas leaves England and is hailed as a hero everywhere he goes because he stood up for the church. Henry gets madder and madder and madder. Henry 's feelings are very hurt. One night, Henry is really drunk and is talking to his knights and say "WIL NO ONE RID ME OF THIS MEDDLESOME PRIEST." The knights take this as instruction and rides to Canturbury castle and they come and kill him. So he is dead and Henry is sobered up and says oh my god I never inteded for that to happen. Now Henry looks terrible. Thomas is now made a saint. The church then claims that he should be punished. So to say hes sorry, he is publicly flagged and shows that the church has more power.

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