verbal behavior

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skinner

idea

what passes through the speakers mind what the speaker sees and hears and feels when he is having the _____

idea

does not provde an expansive understanding of verbal behavior because sensiory events upon which the notion of images occur is minimal

meaning

something expressed or communicated by an utterance, minimally helpful ind understanding verbal behavior

vocal verbal behavior

executed by an extensive musculature, diapragm, vocal cords, epilortis, soft palate, tongue, cheek, lips, and jaw

speech

produced by complex muscular responses of vocal behavior that affect the verbal environment by producing audible ________

acoustic product of vocal verbal behavior can be recorded ____________

phonographically

phonetic alphabet

_____________ was a breakthrough in recording verbal behavior because speech could be broken into constituent sounds and recorded

phonetic alphabet

____________ is used to record a sample of verbal behavior by placing appropriate symbols in a corresponding order

transcription

_____________ permits reader to construct a facsimile of the behavior which will have the same effect upon the verbal community as the original sample

use of phonetic alphabet

_________ makes no commitments about the functional significance of the units identified. For example we can record bird calls such as whooo

direct quotation

______________ is a record of verbal behavior which depends more explicitly upon a knowledge of the conditions under which the behavior occurred

direct quotation

______________ is little more then an acoustic or phonetic transcription which permits the reader to reconstruct relevant properties of the original behavior

hypostasis

an anomaly in scientific method in which the conditions responsible for the original response may not share anything in common with the conditions responsible for the response on the part of describing scientist is the practice of _____________

word

a unit of behavior composed of a response of identifiable form functionally related to one or more independent variables

response

a form of behavior

operant

the prediction and control of a kind of behavior

morphemes

smallest meaningful units

phrases, ideioms, clauses, sentences, etc

have functional unity as a verbal operant

verbal operant

exclusively a unit of behavior in the individual spaker

verbal repertoire

a collection of verbal operants that describes the potential behavior of a speaker

vocabulary

usually regarded as a warehouse of inanimate tools from which the speaker makes appropriate selections as he speaks

strength

every verbal operant may be conceived of as having under specified circumstances an assignable probability of emission conveniently called its ___________

emission

a better sign of strength if the circumstances are unusual

pitch level

an indicator of strength indicated by such things as high pitched playground shouting

indications of energy level or strength in written verbal behavior

size of letters, pressure of the pen, underlining

speed

_________ is a property of emitted verbal behavior which relates to the time in which successive parts of a sample follow one another or how long a response appears after the occasion for it has arisent.

repetition

measure of strength of verbal operant indicated by how response is repeated

example of repetition

NO! NO! NO! as compared to no, no or no a thousand times

complication of evidence of strength

energy level, speed of response, and repetition enter into the construction of different forms of response

measures of strength

energy level, speed of response, and even repetition

energy, speed, and repetitiveness

are all affected by special conditions of reinforcement

reinforcement

any operant verbal or otherwise acquires strength and continues to be maintained in strength when responses are frequently followed by the event called _________

reinforcing of consequences

is important to developing and maintaining verbal behavior

operant reinforcement

a way of controlling the probability of occurrence of a certain class of verbal response

how child acquires verbal behavior

relatively unpatterned vocalizations, selectively reinforced, gradually assume forms which produce appropriate consequences in a given verbal community

prior stimuli

important in the control of verbal behavior

3 term contingency

controls verbal behavior

stimulus discrimination

the process by which an organism becomes more likely to exhibit a given behavior when in the presence of a given prior stimuli

aversive control

a consequence which alters the strength of a verbal response by setting up a scenario in which the speaker gets out of situation by emitting a verbal behavior

speaker and listener

both important in understanding verbal behavior

mand

a verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is therefore under the functional control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation

mand

characterized by the unique relationship between the form of the response and the reinforcement characteristically received in a given verbal community

mand

unique because emission is tied to reinforcement such as look! Bread! etc

request

mand in which listener is independently motivated to reinforce speaker

prayer or entreaty

mand which promotes reinforcement by generating an emotional disposition

question

mand which specifies verbal action and the behavior of the listener permits us to classify it as a request, prayer, or command as the case may be

advice

mand in which speaker is positively reinforced such as go west!

warning

mand in which the listener escapes aversive circumstances by listening to speaker

offer

mand in which gratuitous reinforcement of the listener is extended by the speaker

call

mand in which the speaker characteristically goes on to emit other behavior which may serve as reinforcement to the listener

permission

mand in which the listener is already inclined to act in a certain way but is restrained by threat of punishment and this mand cancels that threat

flattery or praise

may make listener more likely to act such as saying get me water my awesome friend

meaning of a mand

presumably the reinforcement which characteristically follows it

superstitious mand

a mand which cannot be explained by arguing that responses of the same form have been reinforced under similar conditions

magical mand

speaker creates new mands based on analogy of old mands

mand

A verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is therefore controlled by a motivating operation

characteristic consequence

Reinforcement for a certain class of response topographies is typically the same each time.

mand

1st verbal operant emitted by children

formal properties of language

Involve topography (i.e., form, structure) of the verbal response

formal properties of language include

Phonemes, Morphemes, Lexicon, Syntax, Grammar, Word classifications (nouns, verbs, prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, articles), Articulation, intonation, pitch, etc.

Functional properties of language

involve causes of the response

skinners analysis of verbal behavior

A _functional_ approach to language training that Describes verbal behavior as it is related to the antecedents and consequences that surround a class of responses

verbal behavior

Emphasis on the behavior of the speaker, rather than just on the listener; mediated through the reinforcement of another person

mediated reinforcment

A stimulus change that:
occurs after a response,
increases the probability of that response under similar circumstances, and
results from the action of another

verbal behavior

Behavior that is reinforced through the mediation of another person's behavior.
Established and maintained by reinforcement that is mediated by another individual
The other person's action that produces the reinforcement must have been specifically trained in order to reinforce speakers

topography/form

The ________________of the behavior and the type or mode of the stimulus are irrelevant. (makes no difference what syntax, signing, written was used)

controlling variables of verbal behavior

Discriminative stimuli
Discriminative stimuusl---Verbal & Nonverbal
Motivating Operations

verbal stimulus

A physical energy change capable of affecting an organism's sensory receptors that
has a specific form or pattern which as a unit has controlling effectiveness, and
is the result of verbal behavior

point to point correspondence

A relation between a discriminative stimulus and the response it controls, where
the discriminative stimulus has two or more components,
the response has two or more components, and
the first (second) component of the stimulus controls the first (second) component of the response, etc.
The formal or dynamic characteristics of the stimulus and response are irrelevant.

response product

A stimulus that is the result of someone's behavior.

formal similarity

A relation between a stimulus that evokes a response and the response-product, in which
both are the same modality (e.g., both visual or both auditory), and Their physical patterns or sequences resemble one another (e.g., they look or sound alike)

formal control

When there is point-to-point correspondence between a response and the controlling variable that evokes it.

thematic control

When there is no point-to-point correspondence between a response and the controlling variable that evokes it.

audience

listener for verbal behavior

autoclitic

a tact which informs the listener of some nonverbal aspect of the primary verbal operant and therefore is controlled by nonverbal stimuli

convergent multiple control

identify when the occurrence of a single verbal response is a function of more than one variable

divergent multiple control

multiple control also occurs when a single antecedent variable affect the strength of many responses

echoic

a type of verbal operant that occurs when a speaker repeats the verbal behavior of another speaker

formal similarity

occus when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response or response product share the same sense mode and physically resemble each other

generic (tact) extension

novel stimulus shares all the relevant or defining features of the original stimulus

impure tact

tacts which are impure because an MO affects the tact relation

intraverbal

a type of verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others

listener

audience

mand

a verbal operant for which the form of the response is under the functional control of motivating operations and specific reinforcement

metaphorical (tact) extension

novel stimulus shares some but not all the relevant features associated with the original stimulus

metonymical (tact) extension

verbal responses to novel stimuli in which none of the relevant features of the original stimulus configurations are shared but some irrelevant but related feature have acquired stimulus control

multiple control

all verbal behavior contains multiple functional relations among antecedents, behaviors, and consequences

solistic (tact) extension

occur when a stimulus property that is only indirectly related to the tact relation evokes substandard verbal behavior such as malaprops

speaker

one speaking

tact

a verbal operant under the functional control of a nonverbal discriminative stimulus and it produces generalized conditioned reinforcement

textual

reading without any implications that the reader understands what is being read

transcription

consists of writing and spelling words that are spoken

verbal behavior

behavior reinforced through the mediation of another persons behavior

verbal operant

an operant implying a type or class of behavior as distinct from a particular response instance

formal properties of language

involve topography of the verbal response

functional properties of language

involve the causes of the response

types of verbal operants

mand, tact, echoic, intraverbal, textual, and transcription

4 types of extended tacts

generic, metaphorical, metonymical, and solistic

audience

Anyone who functions as a discriminative stimulus evoking verbal behavior. Different
audiences may control different verbal behavior about the same topic due to a differential reinforcement history. Teens may describe the same event in different ways when talking to peers verses parents.

autoclitics

The ___________ relation involves two related but separate three-term contingencies where some aspect of a speaker's own verbal behavior functions as an SD, or an MO, for additional speaker verbal behavior. It can be thought of as verbal behavior about verbal behavior.

automatic punishment

_________________ is a type of conditioned punishment where a response
product has punishing properties due to a specific conditioning history.

automatic reinforcement

__________________ is a type of conditioned reinforcement where a response product has reinforcing properties due to a specific conditioning history. Skinner used
the terms automatic reinforcement and automatic punishment in a number of his writings simply to indicate that an effective consequence can occur without someone providing it. l

copying a text

An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal
discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response. This verbal operant is very similar to the echoic in that a speaker copies the verbal behavior of another speaker. Just as in learning to repeat words facilitates learning mands, tacts,
etc., learning to copy words facilitates reading and writing.

echoic

An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response. Learning to repeat the words of others is essential to acquiring the other elementary verbal operants. Echoic behavior can become too strong as in echolalia.

formal similarity

________________ occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response
or response product (1) share the same sense mode (e.g., both stimulus and response are visual, auditory, or tactile) and (2) physically resemble each other. The verbal relations with formal similarity are echoic, coping a text, and imitation as it relates to sign language.

generic extension

All verbal extensions are a type of stimulus generalization. In generic
extension a response is evoked by a novel stimulus that shares all of the relevant or
defining features associated with the original stimulus.

impure tact

A verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by both an MO and a nonverbal
stimulus, thus the response is part mand and part tact. Most day-to-day verbal behavior is evoked by multiple variables. The value of Skinner's analysis can often be seen by its identification of the relevant variables evoking a particular response as exemplified by the impure tact where a
response may look like a tact, but it is also a mand (e.g., The verbal response The garbage can is full).

intraverbal

An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that does not have point-to-point correspondence with that verbal stimulus. The
intraverbal is the opposite of the echoic, in that the words emitted by one speaker do not exactly match the words of another speaker. Intraverbal behavior constitutes the basis for social interaction, conversations, and much of academic and intellectual behavior. Questions are
mands, and answers are intraverbal.

listener

Someone who provides reinforcement for verbal behavior. A listener may also serve as an audience evoking verbal behavior. The distinction between listener and speaker is often blurred by the fact that much of a listener's behavior may involve becoming a speaker at the covert level
(e.g., thinking about what was said). Often a speaker may be his own listener.

mand

An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by an MO and followed by specific reinforcement. Manding allows speakers to get their wants and needs reinforced by listeners. Manding plays an important role in language acquisition. However, some speakers may
mand excessively with questions and other attention seeking behaviors. Much of the negative behavior emitted by developmentally disabled individuals often functions as a mand.

metaphorical extension

A verbal response evoked by a novel stimulus that shares some, but not all, of
the relevant features of the original stimulus.

Metonymical extension

In metonymical extension a response is evoked by a novel stimulus that shares
none of the relevant features of the original stimulus configuration, but some irrelevant but related feature has acquired stimulus control.

multiple control

There are two types of multiple control. Convergent multiple control occurs
when a single verbal response is a function more than one variable. That is, what is said has more that one antecedent source of control. Divergent multiple control occurs when a single antecedent variable affects the strength of many responses. A single stimulus can evoke many different behaviors.

types of multiple control

convergent and divergent

point to point correspondence

between the stimulus and response or
response product occurs when the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal stimulus matches the
beginning, middle, and end of the verbal response. The verbal relations with point-to-point correspondence are echoic, copying a text, imitation as it relates to sign language, textual, and
transcription.

spaker

Someone who engages in verbal behavior by emitting mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, etc. A ___________ is also someone who uses sign language, gestures, signals, written words, codes,
pictures, or any form of verbal behavior.

tact

An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a nonverbal discriminative stimulus and followed by generalized conditioned reinforcement.

tacting

_____________ allows a speaker to
identify or describe the features of the physical environment. The elements that make up one's
physical environment are vast, thus much of language instruction and educational programs
focus on teaching tacts.

textual

An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response product,
but does not have formal similarity between the stimulus and the response.

transcription

An elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written,
typed, or finger spelled response. Like the textual, there is point-to-point correspondence
between the stimulus and the response product, but no formal similarity.

verbal behavior

Behavior whose reinforcement is mediated by a listener; includes both vocal-verbal
behavior and nonvocal-verbal behavior Encompasses the subject matter usually treated as language and
topics such as thinking, grammar, composition, and understanding.

verbal behavior

As a result of his analysis of
the relations among antecedent events, response instances, and mediated reinforcement, Skinner
identified several basic types of verbal behavior (i.e., the verbal operants such as the mand and
tact). (see echoic, intraverbal, listener, mand, speaker, tact. textual)

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