The Americans Chapter 25

Created by AshAndrews 

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George Marshall

Army Chief of Staff who pushed for the formation of a Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)

A Philip Randolph

president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and the nation's leading African-American labor leader. Organized a march on Washington to protest the military's discrimination against African Americans (that they could only be janitors)

Nisei

Japanese Americans who were born in United States and were therefore American citizens

internment camps

quickly constructed camps built to hold all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living in America after Pearl Harbor

National War Labor Board

limited wage increases
allowed negoatiated benefits such as paid vacations, pensions, and medical insurance
kept unions stable by forbidding workers to change unions

Office of Price Administration

Fought inflation by freezing wages, prices, and rents
Rationed foods such as meat, butgter, cheese, vegetables, sugar and coffee

War Production Board

Rationed fuel and mateirals vital to the war effort such as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber and plastics

Department of the Treasury

Issued war bonds to raise money for the war effort and to fight inflation

Revenue Act of 1942

Raised the top personal-income-tax rate to 90%
Added lower- and middle- income Americans to the income-tax rolls

Smith-Connally Labor Disputed Act

Limited the right to strike in industries cricial to the war effort
Gave the president power to take over striking plants

rationing

fixed allotments of goods deemed essential for hte military -- meant that households were limited in their purchasing and consumption of meat, shoes, sugar, coffee and gasoline

Dwight D. Eisenhower

commanded Operation Torch, an invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa

D-Day

day of the invasion of Normandy

June 6, 1944

D-Day

George Patton

General of Third Army

Harry S. Truman

Roosevelt's running mate in his 4th term

Battle of the Bulge

December 16, 1944. 8 German tank divisions broke thoguht weak American defenses along an 80-mile front. Dent in Allied lines gave this desperate last-ditch offense made by allied forces its name

Liberation of Death Camps

first found by Soviet forces

V-E Day

Victory in Europe Day, May 8, 1945

Douglas MacArthur

US General who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II

Chester Nimitz

US admiral of the Pacific fleet during WWII who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese Navy

kamikaze

suicide plane attack in which Japanese pilots crashed their bomb-laden planes into allied ships

Manhattan Project

secret project with ultimate goal of developing the atomic bomb

J. Robert Oppenheimer

head of scientist working on creating the actual bomb

Hiroshima

important Japanese military center bombed on August 6, 1945

Nagasaki

Bombed on August 9, 1945

Yalta Conference

Feb. 1945 meeting with Roosevelt and Churchill and Stalin in Soviet City of Yalta to discuss creation of UN

UN (United Nations)

international peacekeeping body

Nuremberg Trials

23 nations tried 22 Nazi leaders for war crimes. 12 were sentenced to death and most of the rest went ot prison.

GI Bill of Rights/Servicemen's Readjustment Act

education and training for veterans paid for by the federal government

James Farmer

founded interrational movement called Congress of Racial Equality

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

cofronted urban segregation in the North

Japanese American Citizens League

JACL -- pushed gobvernment to compensate those sent to Japanese internment camps for their lost property

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