friction of distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between 2 places.
Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power
the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization.
Least cost theory
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration.
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
Industries that manufacture goods made from the raw materials provided by the primary sector
In industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location.
a cost that rises or falls depending on how much is produced
A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
Industries designed to stimulate growth through the establishment of various supporting industries.
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
Primary industrial region
A region that consists of one or more core areas of industrial development with clusters some distance away.
Secondary industrial region
regions that consist of one or more core areas of industrial development with subsidiary cluster some distance away (Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand
Special Economic Zone (SEZ)
manufacturing and export center developed to attract foreign investment while spatially limiting capitalism
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
The centers of economic, political, and/or cultural power within a given territorial entity.
A model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
a modern, industrialized country in which people are generally better educated and healthier and live longer than people in developing countries do
a country in which the society is less modern and less industrialized and in which inhabitants are generally poorer than they are in developed countries
a state in which things are improving
Gross national product (GNP)
the total value of all goods and services produced by a country
Model that states that all countries will all reach the same level of development.
model of economic development maintains that all countries go through five stages of development
control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures
poor, dependent regions with little control over their own affairs, usually developing
in between core and periphery
A model that says all countires will never all be at the same level of development.
World Systems Theory
theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford.
Foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
areas alone or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to research, development, and sale of high technology products
Manufacturing export zones
host country establishes areas with favorable tax and trade arrangements in order to attract foreign manufacturing operations
New international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
Centers or nodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high-technology corridor is sometimes established.
through processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced
the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technolgy enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.