Chapter 14 & 11 Outlines

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Personality

an individuals attitudes, behaviors, and emotions that characterize that person, remain constant across situations

Id

(psychoanalytic personality theory-freud) unconscious, instinctive component that strives to satisfy basic sexual & aggressive desires, pleasure principle, (devil on shoulder)

Ego

(psychoanalytic personality theory-freud) partly conscious/ unconscious component that mediates among demands o the Id, Superego & reality, reality principle, mediator

Superego

(psychoanalytic personality theory-freud) both conscious & unconscious, represents internalized ideals & provides standards for judgment (angel on shoulder)

Raymond Cattell

(trait) 16 basic traits

Hanys Eyesenck

role of genetics, biologically oreinted theory of personality, introversion/extroversion

Walter Mischel

the marshmellow experiment, specifics of situation

Gordon Allport

3 types of traits, cardinal-pivotal role, central, secondary

Big 5 Personality traits

(OCEAN) a. Extraversion- how outgoing or shy someone is
b. Agreeableness- how easy to get along with someone is
c. Openness- willingness to try new things
d. Neuroticism- emotional stability, consistent mood

Factor Analysis

use correlations between traits in order to see which traits cluster together as factors, (punctuality & neatness factor for conscientiousness)

Heritability

(biological theories) measure of the amount of variation in a trait in a given population that is due to genetics (Ex: height is highly heritable b/c due to genetics, intelligence is less linked to genetics)

Behaviorist theory of personality

personality is determined by the environment, reinforcement contingencies to which one is exposed creates ones personality, B.F Skinner, evolutionary effects

Temperaments

(behaviorist) individuals characteristic manner of behavior, permanent, Jerome Kagan

William Sheldon

Somatotype Personality, (biological theories) identified three body types, endomorphs (fat), mesomorphs (muscular), ectomorphs (thin), argued that certain personality traits were associated w/ each of the body types. Ectomorphs-shy & secretive, Mesomorphs- confident, assertive, ectomorphs- friendy, outgoing

Social-Cognitive Personality Theories

Albert Bandura, relationship between people, their environment & their behavior, how you interpret environmental factors

Reciprocal Determinism

(social-cognitive) the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors

Self-effacy

(social-cognitive) how confident you are, has an effect on your actions, Albert Bandura

Personal Construct Theory

(social cognitive), George Kelly, people in order to understand the world develop their own individual systems of personal constructs which consists of pairs of opposites (fair-unfair), peoples behavior is determined by how they interpret the world, fundamental postulate states people behavior is influenced by their cognition

Locus of Control

(social cognitive) Julian Rotter, people either have an internal locus of control in which they feel they are responsible for what happens to them or an external locus of control & other forces outside of their own control determine their destinies

Humanistic Theories of Personality

view people as innately good & able to determine their own destines through free will, importance of self concept (persons feeling about himself) & self esteem

Carl Rogers

(humanistic) believed people are motivated to reach their full potential, created self theory, believed people are innately good and require certain things from their interactions w/ others, believes people must feel accepted in order achieve self actualization, person centered theory, unconditional positive regard

Projective Personality tests

free response format, unstructured stimuli which can be perceived in many ways with no response restrictions, peoples interpretations reflect their unconscious thoughts (Rorschach, TAT)

Rorschach

projective, showing people a series of inkblots and asking them to describe what they see, projective

TAT

projective, consists of a number of cards, each contains a picture of a person or people in an ambiguous situation, people are asked to describe what is happening

Self-report inventories

objective tests, standardized written format, answer series of questions about yourself w/ response options limited, MMPI

Validity

accuracy, a valid test measures what it purports to measure

Reliability

consistency, reliable measures yield consistent similar results even if the results are not accurate

Carl Jung

(psychodynamic) collective unconscious, analytical psychology,

Alfred Adler

(psychodynamic) inferior complex, individual psychology

Karen Horny

(psychodynamic) 10 neuratic needs, penis envy

Intelligence

ability to learn from experience, solve problems & use knowledge to solve problems, single ability vs. multiple
fluid intelligence= changes throughout your life
crystallized intelligence= definite form and remains stable

Standardize Tests

test items have been piloted on a similar population of people as those who are meant to take the test (standardization sample), the psychometricians use performance of sample to choose items for future tests

Reliability

consistency, most important

Validity

measures what it was designed to measure, accuracy, a test cannot be valid if it is not reliable

Content Validity

degree to which content of a test is representative of the domain it is it cover, entire range of material. Ex: tests, quizzes

Criterion related Validity

correlating subject scores to an independent measure, concurrent- how much of a characteristic a person has now. Ex: IQ, Wechsler

Predictive Validity

success with which a tests predicts the behavior its designed to predict, Ex: Drivers License Exam

Aptitude Test

measure ability or potential, intelligence test is supposed to be, express potential not current level of achievement

Spearman

intelligence could be expressed by a single factor, factor analysis measures correlations b/t different items
"S" factor: specific abilities
"G" factor: underlying single factor

Gardner

8 broader perspectives of intelligence
Linguistic: utilize language (poet/writer)
Logical-Mathematical: logical problems & equations (math/science)
Spatial: shapes & images (artist)
Musical: perform & compose music (composer)
Body-Kinesthetic: body movement (dancer/athlete)
Intrapersonal: understand yourself (spiritualist)
Interpersonal: understand others (psychologist)
Naturalist: patterns & relationships (street smart)

Goleman

Emotional Quotient, emotional intelligence, recognize people's intents & motivations, corresponds to Gardners Inter/Intrapersonal intelligence, both IQ and EQ are needed to succeed

Sternberg

three types of intelligence exist, reflecting intelligence, experimental/creative intelligence, contextual/practical intelligence

Stanford Binet IQ Test

Louis Terman, used system of Alfred Binet and applied it in California
IQ: intelligence quotient, dividing the mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100

Heritability

Louis Terman, used system of Alfred Binet and applied it in California
IQ: intelligence quotient, dividing the mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100

Flynn Effect

performance on intelligence tests have been increasing steadily throughout the century

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