5th Century BC, rejection of traditional polytheistic beliefs, reinterpretation of religion all over the world.
the belief that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural objects
the main religion in India, it emphasizes reincarnation, based on the results of the previous life, and the desirability of escaping this cycle. Its various forms feature both asceticism and the pleasures of ordinary life, and it encompasses a multitude of gods as different manifestations of one ultimate reality
Supreme Hindu deity?
How many Jewish commandments?
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
"the greater vehicle" branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment. More decorative, colorful, religious; notions of heaven and hell w/reincarnation, saintlike figures/avatars
"the lesser/smaller vehicle" Way of the Elders branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Theravada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods and emphasizes austerity and the individual's search for enlightenment.
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples
popular Chinese philosophical system based in teachings of Lao-tzu but characterized by a pantheism of many gods and the practices of alchemy and divination and magic; emphasizes luxury & pleasure, never challenges anything never persecuted by the state
founder of Daoism, hermitlike, contemporary of Confucious, his writings "the way"- dao
belief in a single God
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
the awaited king of the Jews
paul of tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him.
founded Constantinople; best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor; issued the Edit of Milan in 313, granting religious toleration throughout the empire
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
born 570 C.E. Died 632 C.E. The creator and Preacher of the islamic religion. Sent away in his childhod to live with a nomad, he grew up and became a prophet of the Angel Gabriel
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
The Five Pillars
ethical code in Islam
1) profession of faith
2) pray 5x a day facing mecca
3) fasting rituals/ ramadan
4) pilgrimmage to mecca
5) charity/alms giving
the military and political leaders of the Muslim community who succeeded Muhammad after his death
established by Muawiya, moved capital from Medina to Damascus, that action split Islam (Shi'ites & Sunnites)
Muslim dynasty after Ummayd, a dynasty that lasted about two centuries that had about 150 years of Persia conquer and was created by Mohammad's youngest uncle's sons
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.
Muslims that believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad should become caliph
a Persian prophet, lived around 600 B.C. taught that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle if fought between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil, founder of Zoroasterianism
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (250)
Eastern Christian church; split from Catholic Church because they did not believe in Pope as supreme ruler of Church; priests are allowed to marry, Bible written in Greek not Latin,
the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters; emperor is head over the church
captured Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul; as a result the Byzantine people flee to Italian City-States which becomes a catalyst for the expansion of language and art
roman catholic church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
largest empire in the world, founded in the 12th century by Genghis Khan, which reached its greatest territorial extent in the 13th century, encompassing the larger part of Asia and extending westward to the Dnieper River in eastern Europe.
A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.
disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism
last byzantine emperor?
sacred islamic pilgrimmage site?