Chapter 16 - Psychological Disorders

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From Psychology, 8th edition, by Myers

Depression and Schizophrenia

In every culture in the world, the psychological disorders __________________ exist.

Psychological Disorders

Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns.

Culture, Context, and Time

What defines "deviant behavior" varies with _________ (3 things).

December 10, 1973

The day that homosexuality was no longer classified an illness by the American Psychiatric Association.

Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Boys

ADHD is diagnosed two to three times more often in ______.

Medical Model

The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, this assumes that these "mental illnesses" can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.

Psychopathology

A mental illness is also sometimes known as a(n) __________.

Susto

A disorder found in Latin America which is marked by severe anxiety, restlessness, and a fear of black magic.

Taijin-kyofusho

A disorder found in Japan which combines social anxiety about one's appearance with a readiness to blush and a fear of eye contact.

DSM-IV

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated "text revision" (DSM-IV-TR).

Internal Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)

The DSM-IV was developed in coordination with the tenth edition of this, created by the World Health Organization.

Axis 1 of the DSM-IV-TR

Is a /Clinical Syndrome/ present? Examples include medical mental disorders, delirium, dementia, amnesia, and other cognitive disorders, substance-related disorders, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, sexual and sleep disorders, the list goes on.

Axis 2 of the DSM-IV-TR

Is a /personality disorder/ or /mental retardation/ present?

Axis 3 of the DSM-IV-TR

Is a /general medical condition/, such as diabetes, hypertension, or arthritis, also present?

Axis 4 of the DSM-IV-TR

Are /Psychosocial/ or /Environmental Problems/, such as school or housing issues, also present?

Axis 5 of the DSM-IV-TR

What is the /Global Assessment/ of this person's functioning? This is assessed on a scale from 0-100. (For example, 91-100 = Superior functioning with no symptoms; 51-60 = Moderate symptoms; 1-10 = Persistent danger of severely hurting self or others or persistent inability to maintain minimal personal hygiene or serious suicidal act with clear expectation of death).

The Values in Action Classification of Strengths

A "strengths manual" developed in response to the DSM, which helps researchers assess six clusters (Wisdom/Knowledge, Courage (overcoming opposition), Love, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence) of 24 strengths. See page 646 for a complete list of these strengths.

16%

In 1999, ___ of the U.S. jail and prison inmate population had severe mental disorders.

Schizophrenia

People with ________ are more likely than others to commit violent crime, especially if they also abuse alcohol.

Anxiety Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. Attention constantly switches from worry to worry, and one of the worst parts is that the victim cannot identify the cause of his/her anxiety.

Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.

Phobia

An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.

Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD)

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.

Dose-response relationship

This relationship explains that the greater one's emotional stress during trauma, the more likely one is to experience PTSD.

Survivor Resiliency

About half of adults experience at least one traumatic even in their life-time, but only about 1 in 10 women and 1 in 20 men develop PTSD.

Post-traumatic growth

A term coined by Richard Tedeschi and Lawrence Calhoun, referring to the idea that the struggle with challenging crises often leads people later to report an increased appreciation for life, more meaningful relationships, increased personal strength, changed priorities, and a richer spiritual life.

Fear Conditioning

One of two learning perspective explanations for anxiety disorders, this states that people learn to fear neutral stimuli, and then generalize that fear.

Observational Learning

One of two learning perspective explanations for anxiety disorders, this states that people learn to fear things by watching other people, like parents, fear them.

Natural Selection

One of the facets of the Biological Perspective on anxiety disorders. People biologically learn to fear things that are potentially harmful.

Genes

One of the facets of the Biological Perspective on anxiety disorders. Some people are more naturally predisposed to anxiety disorders because of __________.

The Brain

One of the facets of the Biological Perspective on anxiety disorders. Overarousal here is a biological cause of anxiety.

Anterior Cingulate Cortex

A brain region that monitors our actions and checks for errors. It seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with OCD.

Amygdala

Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the __________.

Dissociative Disorders

Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thought, and feelings. The victim appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity.

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.

Mood Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.

Winter

People are more likely to experience depression during the __________.

Major Depressive Disorder

A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

Dysthymic Disorder

A down-in-the-dumps mood that fills most of the day, nearly every day, for two years or more. This disorder fall between normal blue periods and major depression.

Mania

A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

Bipolar Disorder

A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)

Six facts about depression summarized by Peter Lewinsohn

1) Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression.
2) Depression is widespread.
3) Compared with men, women are nearly twice as vulnerable to major depression.
4) Most major depressive episodes self-terminate.
5) Stressful events related to work, marriage, and close relationships often precede depression.
6) With each new generation the rate of depression is increasing, and the disorder is striking earlier (now often in the late teens).

Schizophrenia

A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.

Delusions

False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.

Flat Affect

A zombielike state of apparent apathy.

Catatonia

Those who exhibit it may be motionless for hours, and then are suddenly agitated.

Paranoid Schizophrenia

Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution.

Disorganized Schizophrenia

Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion.

Catatonic Schizophrenia

Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements.

Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

A kind of schizophrenia with many and varied symptoms.

Residual Schizophrenia

Withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared.

Positive Symptoms

People with these exhibit the inappropriate behaviors of schizophrenia. Includes hallucinations, talk in disorganized and deluded ways, and exhibiting inappropriate laughter, tears, or rage.

Negative Symptoms

People with these exhibit their schizophrenia with an absence of appropriate behavior (as opposed to a presence of inappropriate behavior) Includes toneless voices, expressionless faces,or mute and rigid bodies.

Dopamine

In the minds of schizophrenic patients, there is a sixfold excess for the so-called D4 __________ receptor.

Glutamate

In addition to dopamine, researchers believe that this neurotransmitter, which directs neurons to pass along an impulse, leads to negative schizophrenic symptoms if interfered with.

Schizophrenia

Abnormal brain activity, like low activity in the frontal lobes, spurts of intense activity (especially in the thalamus) during hallucinations, and enlarged, fluid filled areas of the brain corresponding with great shrinkage of cerebral tissue are all linked with ___________.

6 arguments for why midpregnancy viral infections may cause schizophrenia

1) People are at increased risk of schizophrenia if, during the middle of their fetal development, their country experiences a flu epidemic.
2) People born in densely populated areas, where viral diseases spread more readily, are at greater risk for schizophrenia.
3) Those born during winter and spring months - after the fall-winter flu season - are at increased risk.
4) In the Southern Hemisphere, where the seasons are the reverse of the Northern Hemisphere, the months of above-average schizophrenia births are similarly reversed.
5) Mothers who report being sick with influenza during pregnancy are more likely to bear children who develop schizophrenia.
6) Blood drawn from pregnant women whose offspring develop schizophrenia shows higher-than-normal levels of antibodies that suggest a viral infection.

7 Early Warning Signs for Schizophrenia

1) A mother whose schizophrenia was severe and long-lasting.
2) Birth complications, often involving oxygen deprivation and low birth weight.
3) Separation from parents.
4) Short attention span and poor muscle coordination.
5) Disruptive or withdrawn behavior.
6) Emotional unpredictability.
7) Poor peer relations and solo play.

Personality Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

Avoidant Personality Disorder

One cluster of personality disorders expresses anxiety, such as a fearful sensitivity to rejection that predisposes the withdrawn ______________.

Schizoid Personality Disorder

One cluster of personality disorders expresses eccentric behaviors, such as the emotionless disengagement of the _______________.

Histrionic

A person with a ________ personality disorder displays shallow, attention-getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain others' praise and reassurance.

Narcissistic

Those with __________ personality disorder exaggerate their own importance, aided by success fantasies. They find criticism hard to accept, often reacting with rage or shame.

Borderline

Those with ___________ personality disorder have an unstable identity, unstable relationships, and unstable and impulsive emotions.

Antisocial Personality Disorder

A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

Antisocial Personality Disorder

People with _________ show little autonomic nervous system arousal when faced with aversive events, and they react with lower stress hormones.

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