glossary of infectious diseases

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for Biomedical technology

Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome(AIDS)

Infectious disease syndrome that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV).

Allergen

Substance that can induce an allergic reaction or specific susceptibility.

Amantadine

Antiviral compound sometimes used to treat influnza type A infections.

Antibiotic

Microbial product,or its derivative, that kills or inhibits the growth of susceptible microorganisms.

Antibody

Glycoprotein produced in response to an antigen.

Antigen

Forign (nonself) substance to which lymphocytes respond.

Botulism

Form of food poisoning caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinim.

Candidiasis

Infection caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Typcally involves the skin.

Communicable Disease

Disease associated with an agent that can be transmitted from one host to another.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Chronic, progressive, fatal disease caused by Corynebaterium diphtheriae

DPT(diphtheria-pertusis-tetanus)vaccine

Vaccine containing 3 antigens that is used to immunize people against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus.

Endemic Disease

Disease that is commonly or constantly present in a population, usually at a relatively conatant low level.

Epidemic

Sudden increase in occurrence of a disease above the normal level in a particuar population.

Genital Herpes

Sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex type 2 virus.

Giardiasis

Intestinal disease caused by the protozoan Giardia Lamblia.

Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis)

Type of hepatitis that is transmitted by fecal-oral contamination.

Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis)

Type or hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Transmitted throught body fluids.

Herd Immunity

Resistance of a population to spread of an infectious organism due to the immunity of a high propotion of the population.

Human Immunodeficieny virus(HIV)

Retrovirus that is associated with the onset of AIDS.

Immune Response

Response of the body to contact with an antigen leads to the formation of antibodies and sensitized lymphocytes.

Influenza (flu)

Acute viral infection of the respiratory tact caused by one of three strains of influenza virus (A,B and C)

Legionnaire Disease

Pulmonary form of disease caused with legionella pneumophila.

Morbidity Rate

Number of individuals who become ill with a particular disease within a susceptible population during specified time period.

Mortality Rate

Ratio of the number of deaths from a particular disease to the total number of cases of th disease.

Nosocomial Infection

Infection produced by a pathogenic agent that a patient acquires during hospitalization or treatment inside another health care facility.

Parasite

Organism that is usually harmless, but can be pathogenic in a compromised host.

Poliomyelitis

Acute, contagious viral disease of the central nervous system that can lead to paralysis.

Prion

Infectious particle that is responsible for certain slow-acting disease such as scrapie in sheep and goats, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.

Reservoir

Site, alternate host, or carrier that harbors pathogenic organisms and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected.

Schistosomiasis

Helminth infection acquried from contact with water containing infected snails.

TB Skin Test

Tuberculin hypersensitivity test to detect a current or past infection with Mycobacterium teberculosis.

Tetanus

Often fatal disease caused by the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostidium tetani.

Vaccine

Perparation of killed microoganisms; living, weakened (attenuated) microorganisms; inactive or attenuated virus particles; inactivated bactrial toxions; or components (protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid) of the microorganism that are administered to stimulate an immune response.

vector

Living organism that transfers an infective agent from one host to another.

Virus

Infectious agent composed of a protien coat and a single type of nucleic acid.

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