The Western philosophy based on empirical evidence that dominated the 18th century. The Enlightenment was a new way of thinking critically about the world and about human kind, independently of religion, myth, or tradition.
• Promoted scientific questioning of all assertions and embraced the doctrine of progress.
Benjamin West, "The Death of General Wolfe," 1770
A style of art and architecture that emerged in the late 18th century as part of a general revival of interest in classical cultures. Neoclassical artists adopted themes and styles from ancient Greece and Rome.
Jacques-Louis David, "Oath of the Horatii," 1784-85
Example of patriotism and sacrifice
Jacques-Louis David, "Death of Marat," 1793
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, "Large Odalisque," 1814
The reclining female nude was a Greco-Roman subject, but Ingres converted his Neoclassical figure into an odalisque in a Turkish harem, consistent with the new Romantic taste for the exotic.
A Western cultural phenomenon, beginning around 1750 and ending about 1850, that gave precedence to feeling and imagination over reason and thought. More narrowly, the art movement that flourished from about 1800 to 1840.
Social Contract (1762)
Francisco Goya, "Family of Charles IV," 1800
Goya's model for the portrait was Velázquez's "Las Meninas," which also included the artist in the painting (619).
Francisco Goya, "Third of May 1808," 1814
Goya encouraged empathy for the massacred Spanish peasants by portraying horrified expressions and anguish on their faces, endowing the, with a humanity lacking in the French firing squad (619).
Goya, "Duke of Wellington"
Théodore Géricault, "Raft of the Medusa," 1818-19
In this gigantic history painting, Géricault rejected Neoclassical compositional principles and, in the Romantic spirit, presented a jumble of writhing bodies in every attitude of suffering, despair, and death (621).
Eugène Delacroix, "Women of Algiers," 1834
Caspar David Friedrich, "Abbey in the Oak Forest," 1810
Friedrich was a master of the Romantic transcendental landscape. The reverential mood of this winter scene with the ruins of a Gothic church and cemetery demands the silence appropriate to sacred places.
John Constable, "The Haywain," 1821
"The Haywain" is a nostalgic view of the disappearing English countryside during the Industrial Revolution. Constable had a special gift for capturing the texture that climate and weather give to landscape (627).
Constable, Sketch for the Hay Wain, 1821
Turner, "Slave Ship," 1840
The essence of Turner's innovative style is the emotive power of color. He released color from any defining outlines to express both the forces of nature and the painter's emotional response to them.
Turner, "Rain, Steam, and Speed, 1844"
A movement that emerged in mid- 19th-century France. Realist artists represented the subject matter of every day life (especially subjects that had previously been considered inappropriate for depiction) in a relatively naturalistic mode.
• Gustave Courbet - paintings of menial labor and ordinary people exemplify his belief that painters should depict only their own time and place
• Honoré Daumier boldly confronted authority with his satirical lithographs commenting on the plight of the working classes
• Édouard Manet shocked the public with his paintings featuring promiscuous women and rough brush strokes, which emphasized the flatness of the painting surface, paving the way for modern abstract art.
Gustave Courbet, "The Stone Breakers," 1849
Courbet was the leading figure in the Realist movement. Using a palette of dirty browns and grays, he conveyed the dreary and dismal nature of menial labor in mid-19th-century France (630).
Gustave Courbet, "A Burial at Ornans," 1849-50
Although as monumental in scale as a traditional history painting, "Burial at Ornans" horrified critics because of the ordinary nature of the subject and Courbet's starkly antiheroic composition (631).
Gustave Courbet, "A Burial at Ornans," 1849-50 vs.
Gustave Courbet, The Studio: "A Real Allegory Concerning Seven Years of Life as an Artist," 1854-55
Gustave Courbet, The Studio: "A Real Allegory Concerning Seven Years of Life as an Artist," 1854-55 vs.
Jean-François Millet, "The Gleaners," 1857
Millet and the Barbizon School painters specialized in depictions of French country life. Here, Millet portrayed three impoverished women gathering the remainders left in the field after a harvest.
Jean-François Millet, "The Gleaners," 1857 vs. Pieter Bruegel the Elder, "Hunters in the Snow," 1565.
• Human activities remain the dominant theme
Honoré Daumier, "The Third-Class Carriage," 1862
Daumier frequently depicted the plight of the disinherited masses of 19th-century industrialism. Here, he portrayed the anonymous poor cramped together in a grimy third-class railway carriage (p. 634).
Manet, "Luncheon on the Grass (Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe)," 1863
Manet was widely criticized for both his shocking subject matter and his manner of painting. Moving away from illusionism (moving toward open acknowledgement of painting's properties), he used colors to flatten form and to draw attention to the painting surface (635).
• Important role in the development of Impressionism in the 1870s
• Represents an impressive synthesis and critique of the history of painting
Manet, "Luncheon on the Grass (Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe)," 1863 vs. Titian, "Pastoral Concert," 1509-10
Édouard Manet, "Olympia," 1863
Manet scandalized the public with this painting of a nude prostitute and her black maid carrying a bouquet from a client. Critics also faulted him for using rough brush strokes and abruptly shifting tonality (636).
→ Brush strokes/tonality - more abrupt than those found in traditional academic painting
Adolphe-William Bouguereau, "Nymphs and Satyr," 1873
More renowned than Manet in his own day, Bouguereau was an artist in the French academic tradition who specialized in depicting subjects from classical mythology with polished naturalism (637).
→ Naturalistic manner - emphatically not Realist
→ Fictional theme and adherence to established painting conventions
Sought to capture the images and sensibilities of the age. Modernist art goes beyond simply dealing with the present and involves the artist's critical examination of the premises of art itself.
A late-19th-century art movement that sought to capture a fleeting moment, thereby conveying the illusiveness and impermanence of images and conditions.
• Sketchy quality
• The Impressionists strove to capture fleeting moments and transient effects of light and climate on canvas.
• Focus on recording contemporary urban scene in Paris
• Complementing the Impressionists' sketchy, seemingly spontaneous brush strokes are the compositions of their paintings. Reflecting the influence of Japanese prints and photography, Impressionist works often have arbitrarily cut-off figures and settings seen at sharply oblique angles.
Claude Monet, Impression: "Sunrise," 1872
A hostile critic applied the derogatory term "Impressionism" to this painting because of its sketchy quality and clearly evident brushstrokes. Monet and his circle embraced the label for their movement (655).
• Acknowledging the paint and the canvas surface (modernist characteristic)
Monet, Rouen Cathedral, Full Sun, 1894
Monet painted some 40 views of Rouen Cathedral at different times of day and under various climatic conditions. The real subject of this painting is not the building but the sunlight shining on it (656).
Monet, Rouen Cathedral, Gray Weather, 1894
Monet, "Regatta at Argenteuil," 1872
Monet, "Women in the Garden," 1866
Monet, "Women in the Garden," 1866 vs. Monet, "The Railroad Bridge," 1874
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, "Le Moulin de la Galette," 1876
Renoir's painting of this popular Parisian dance hall is dappled by sunlight and shade, artfully blurred into the figures to produce the effect of floating and fleeting light that the Impressionists cultivated (659).
• Attention to leisure activities in Paris
• Continuity of space - positions viewer as a participant
→ Whereas classical art sought to express universal and timeless qualities, Impressionism attempted to depict just the opposite - the incidental, momentary, and passing aspects of reality.
Édouard Manet, "A Bar at the Folies-Bergère," 1882
In this painting set in a Parisian café, Manet called attention to the canvas surface by creating spatial inconsistencies, such as the relationship between the barmaid and her apparent reflection in a mirror (660).
→ These visual contradictions reveal Manet's insistence on calling attention to the pictorial structure of his painting, in keeping with his modernist interest in examining the basic premises of the medium.
Edgar Degas, "The Tub," 1886
"The Tub" reveals the influence of Japanese prints, especially the distinctive angles artists such as Torii Kiyonaga used in representing figures. Degas translated his Japanese model into the Impressionist mode (661).
• Line is an important formal element
→ Line to convey sense of movement (rapid and informal action, recording quick arrested motion)
→ Outlined major objects in the painting and covered all surfaces with linear hatch marks.
• Acknowledges the artwork's surface - limited foreshortening of the pitchers and their shared edge, in conjunction with the rest of the image, create a visual perplexity for the viewer.
Edgar Degas, "Absinthe," 1876
The term used to describe the stylistically heterogeneous work of the group of late-19th-century painters in France, including van Gogh, Gauguin, Seurat, and Cézanne, who more systematically examined the properties and expressive qualities of line, pattern, form, and color than the Impressionists did.
• Post-Impressionism is not a unified style. The term refers to the group of late-19th-century artists who followed the Impressionists and took painting in new directions.
→ More systematic examining of the properties and expressive qualities of line, pattern, form and color
→ The art had roots in Impressionist precepts and methods, but is not stylistically homogenous
• George Seurat refined the Impressionist approach to color and light into pointillism - the disciplined application of pure color in tiny daubs that become recognizable forms only when seen from a distance.
• Vincent van Gough explored the capabilities of colors and distorted forms to express emotions, as in his dramatic depiction of the sky in "Starry Night."
• Paul Gauguin, another admirer of Japanese prints, moved away from Impressionism in favor of large areas of flat color bounded by firm lines.
• Paul Cézanne replaced transitory visual effects of the Impressionists with a rigorous analysis of the lines, planes, and colors that make up landscapes and still lifes.
Georges Seurat, "A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte," 1884-86
Seurat's color system - pointillism - involved dividing colors into their component parts and applying those colors to the canvas in tiny dots. The forms become comprehensible only from a distance.
• Subject matter similar to Impressionists
• Pointillism - technique very different from Impressionists
→ Shows a new scientific interest in how we see and creating new painting styles
Georges Seurat, "Bathers at Asnières," 1883-84
• Post-impressionist, one of Cézanne's contemporaries
→ He was also trying to make something permanent and stable out of impressionism
• Subject matter: Indebted to the impressionists - showing a scene of working class leisure on the outskirts of Paris
• No sense that this is a quick/fleeting moment
• RETURN TO THE VALUES OF CLASSICAL COMPOSITION - BUILT AROUND FIGURE AND FRAME (See comparison to Degas slide)
→ Composition has been carefully organized - built around a big diagonal (the water and the grass)
→ Creates movement and energy (see next slide - Rubens)
→ He has calmed it down to create an impression of stillness - he has controlled the motion with verticals and horizontals (the man laying down on the ground). Verticals - suggested through the dog, then the hat, then hat, and then the tip of the tree)
→ Firm outlines
→ Distilled down to geometric essence
Georges Seurat, "Bathers at Asnières," 1883-84 vs. Rubens
This is also built around a great diagonal which creates a great impression of movement
Georges Seurat, "Bathers at Asnières," 1883-84 vs. Degas
Degas is seemingly random compared to "Bathers at Asnières"
Vincent van Gogh, "Night Café," 1888
In "Night Café," van Gogh explored the abilities of colors and distorted forms to express emotions. The thickness, shape, and direction of his brush strokes create a tactile counterpart to the intense colors (666).
Vincent van Gogh, "Starry Night," 1889
In this late work, van Gough painted the vast night sky filled with whirling and exploding stars, the earth huddled beneath it. The painting is almost abstract pattern of expressive line, shape, and color (667).
• Illustrates his "expressionist" method
Paul Gauguin, "The Vision of the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling with the Angel)," 1888
Gauguin admired Japanese prints, stained glass, and cloisonné enamels. Their influences are evident in this painting of Breton women, in which firm outlines enclose large areas of unmodulated color (667).
• Rejects both Realism and Impressionism
→ Departed from optical realism and composed the picture elements to focus the viewer's attention on the idea and intensify the message
→ Images are not what the Impressionist eye would have seen and replicated but what memory would have recalled and imagination would have modified.
• Compared to van Gogh
→ Rejected objective representation in favor of subjective expression
→ van Gogh's heavy, thick brush strokes were an important component of his expressive style, however Gauguin's color areas appear flatter, often visually dissolving into abstract patches or patterns.
• Compared to Impressionism
→ Broke with the Impressionists' studies of minutely contrasted hues
Paul Gauguin, "Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?," 1897
In search of a place far removed from European materialism, Gauguin moved to Tahiti, where he used native women and tropical colors to present a pessimistic view of the inevitability of the life cycle (668).
• Summary of Gauguin's artistic methods and of his views on life
• Broad areas of flat color
Paul Cézanne, "Self-Portrait," 1879
• Fleeting light affect
→ In the self-portrait we are left with firmness/solidity
• Colors in expressionist paintings are often very bright (except for Degas)
Paul Cézanne, "House in Provence," 1879-82
• Cézanne rejected must of the subject matter of impressionism
→ He was never a full-time resident of Paris - he spent most of his life in his hometown in the South of France - he was isolated
• Most of his work focused on a narrow range of subjects: Still life, Landscape, Used these subjects as experiments for his treatment of form
Paul Cézanne, "Mont Sainte-Victoire," 1902-04 vs. Monet
• Brush work creates fragmented/broken surface - no organizing principle that seems to "control" the brush strokes
Cézanne's brush strokes are much different
• You can see them
• All the brushstrokes line up - they are organized, as if they have been magnetized, they all go at an angle
• The forms do not dissolve as they do in the kind of style that Monet used where form is swallowed in an atmospheric mist
• Cézanne does not employ traditional modeling that involves gradually shifting the tones from dark to light
→ He builds form through contrasting colors - something new
Paul Cézanne, "The Basket of Apples," ca. 1895
Cézanne's analytical approach to painting is evident in his still lifes. He captured the solidity of bottles and fruit by juxtaposing color patches, but the resulting abstract shapes are not optically realistic.
• Analytical (opposite of the spontaneity in Impressionism)
→ Broad brush strokes
→ Apples sit on a table but the surface isn't really flat - the lines don't match up, the basket also has an unusual shape
→ He intentionally "broke" the rules of perspective - it seems to suggest that he is recognizing that painting isn't illusion it is an arrangement of objects on a surface and it is about color
→ The pictorial structure has its own demands
Similar to Manet - the forms are clearly outlined (marking off the boundary of the form)
• These lines don't really exist in reality - emphasizes the form of each individual element
Degas also abandons illusion and violates the laws of linear perspective
• Violates the laws of classic composition - disrupts relationship between figure and frame.
• Cézanne has returned to classical composition
→ Fits in the frame - asserting that can have classical gravity and importance but he can do this w/o following the conventions of perspective and modeling with tone
Paul Cézanne, "Mont Sainte-Victoire," 1885-87
Paul Cézanne, "Mont Sainte-Victoire," 1902-04
In his landscapes, Cézanne replaced the transitory visual effects of changing atmospheric conditions, a focus for the Impressionists, with careful analysis of the lines, planes, and colors of nature (669).
• Unique way of studying nature
• He sought a lasting structure behind the formless and fleeting visual information the eye absorbs.
→ Sought to order the lines, planes, and colors that comprised nature
• Achieve effects of distance, depth, structure,and solidity by recording the color patterns an optical analysis of nature provides
• In this painting, he replaced the transitory visual effects of changing atmospheric conditions with a more concentrated, lengthier analysis of the colors in large lighted spaces.
Paul Cézanne, "Mont Sainte-Victoire," 1902-04
Don't have the ____ that lead into the background, instead we have patches. It isn't distant pictorially - we read it as pattern - this marks a sort of progression towards an increased focus on paint as something that is distributed on a 2D surface as opposed to paint that is meant to give the illusion of 3D
A late-19th-century movement based on the idea that the artists was not an imitator of nature but a creator who transformed the facts of nature into a symbol of the inner experience of that fact.
• Symbolists disdained Realism as trivial and sought to depict a reality beyond that of the everyday world. They rejected materialism, and celebrated fantasy and imagination. Their subjects were often mysterious, exotic, and sensuous.
Edvard Munch, "The Scream," 1893
Although grounded in the real world, "The Scream" departs significantly from visual reality. Munch used color, line, and figural distortion to evoke a strong emotional response from the viewer (673).
An early-20th-century art movement led by Henri Matisse. For the Fauves, color became the formal element most responsible for pictorial coherence and the primary conveyor of meaning.
• One of the first movements to tap into the pervasive desire for expression
• Fauves = Wild beasts
• Driven by the desire to develop an art having the directness of Impressionism but also embracing intense color juxtapositions and their emotional capabilities
• Demonstrated color's structural, expressive, and aesthetic capabilities
• Used bold colors as the primary means of conveying feeling
• Color does not describe local tones of objects but expresses the picture's content
The Fauves: André Derain, "London Bridge," 1906
Derain worked to use color to its fullest potential - to produce aesthetic and compositional coherence, to increase luminosity, and to elicit emotional responses from the viewer.
The Fauves: André Derain, "London Bridge," 1906 vs Cézanne
Henri Matisse, "Woman with the Hat," 1905
Matisse portrayed his wife Amélie using patches and splotches of seemingly arbitrary colors. He and the other Fauve painters used color not to imitate nature but to produce a reaction in the viewer (687).
• Conventional manner compositionally
• Seemingly arbitrary colors and sketchiness of forms startle the viewer
Henri Matisse, "Bonheur de Vivre" ("Joy of Life"), 1905-06
Henri Matisse, "Bonheur de Vivre" ("Joy of Life"), 1905-06 vs. Poussin
Henri Matisse, "Bonheur de Vivre" ("Joy of Life"), 1905-06 vs. Renoir
Henri Matisse, "Red Studio," 1911
German Expressionism (689)
• Immediacy and boldness of Fauvism
• Although color plays a prominent role in contemporaneous German painting, the expressiveness of the German images is due as much to wrenching distortions of form, ragged outline, and agitated brush strokes.
Die Brüke (The Bridge) (689)
An early-20th-century German Expressionist art movement under the leadership of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. The group thought of itself as the bridge between the old age and the new.
• Modeled themselves on their ideas of medieval craft guilds by living together and practicing all the arts equally.
• Protested the hypocrisy and materialistic decadence of those in power
→ Detrimental effects of industrialization
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Berlin, 1913
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, "Girl under a Japanese Umbrella," 1909
Vassily Kandinsky, "Improvisation No. 30 (Cannon)," 1913
• Der Blaue Reiter
• Scientists' exploration of atomic structure convinced Kandinsky that material objects had no real substance
• Believed artists must express the spirit and their innermost feelings by orchestrating color, form, line, and space
• Complete abstraction
Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) (691)
An early-20th-century German Expressionist art movement founded by Vassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. The artists selected the whimsical name because of their mutual interest in the color blue and horses.
• Produced paintings that captured their feelings in visual form while also eliciting intense visceral responses from viewers
Vassily Kandinsky, "Composition VIII," 1923
Primitivism and Cubism (694)
• Radically challenged prevailing artistic conventions
• Artists dissect forms and place them in interaction with the space around them
• Primitivism: The incorporation in early-20th-century Western art of stylistic elements from the artifacts of Africa, Oceania, and the native peoples of the Americas.
• Rejected naturalistic depictions, preferring compositions of shapes and forms abstracted from the conventionally perceived world.
• Pursued analysis of form central to Cézanne's artistic explorations
• Subdued hues in order to focus the viewer's attention on form
• Analytic Cubism
→ First phase of cubism
→ Involves analyzing the structure of forms
→ Radically disrupts expectations about the representation of time and space
• Synthetic Cubism
The first phase of Cubism, developed jointly by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, in which the artists analyzed form from every possible vantage point to combine the various views into one pictorial whole.
Pablo Picasso, "Gertrude Stein," 1906-07
Picasso had left this portrait of his friend and patron unfinished until he decided to incorporate the planar simplicity of ancient Iberian stone sculptures into his depiction of her face (694).
• Picasso discovered a new approach to the representation of the human form
Pablo Picasso, "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon," 1907
African and Iberian sculpture and the late paintings of Cézanne influenced this pivotal work, with which Picasso opened the door to a radically new method of representing forms in space (695).
• This paintings revolutionary ideas were used as a point of departure for Cubism
• Influenced by "Primitive Art" (similar to "Gertrude Stein")
• Radically new method of representing form in space.
→ Instead of depicting the figures as continuous volumes, he fractured their shapes and interwove them with the equally jagged planes that represent drapery and empty space.
→ Depicts the figures inconsistently - same head as Gertrude Stein
• Pushed Cézanne's treatment of form and space ("Mont Sainte-Victoire" and "Basket of Apples") to a new level.
• Gone is the traditional concept of an orderly, constructed, and unified pictorial space that mirrors the world - new representation of the world as a dynamic interplay of time and space
• Represents dramatic departure from the careful presentation of a visual reality
Georges Braque, "Houses at L'Estaque," 1908
Georges Braque, "The Portuguese," 1911
The Cubists rejected the pictorial illusionism that had dominated Western art for centuries. In this painting, Braque concentrated on dissecting form and placing it in dynamic interaction with space (697).
• Analytic Cubism
• Dissecting form and placing it in dynamic interaction with the space around it
• Subdued hues - here brown - in order to focus the viewer's attention on form
• Unconventional use of light and shadow
• Ultimately, the constantly shifting imagery makes it impossible to arrive at any definitive or final reading of the image
Robert Delaunay, "Homage to Blériot," 1914
Pablo Picasso, "Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler," 1910
Pablo Picasso, "Still Life with Chair Caning," 1911-12
This painting includes a piece of oilcloth imprinted with the photo-lithographed pattern of a cane chair seat. Framed with a piece of rope, the still life challenges the viewer's understanding of reality (698).
• Synthetic Cubism
A later phase of Cubism, in which paintings and drawings were constructed from objects and shapes cut from paper or other materials to represent parts of a subject, in order to engage the viewer with pictorial issues, such as figuration, realism, and abstraction.
Pablo Picasso, "Three Musicians," 1921
Pablo Picasso, "Three Women at the Spring," 1921
• Embraced the "machine aesthetic" and sought purity of form in the clean functional lines of industrial machinery.
• Opposed Synthetic Cubism on the grounds that it was becoming merely an esoteric, decorative art out of touch with the machine age.
• Purists maintained that machinery's clean functional lines and the pure forms of its parts should direct the artist's experiments in design.
Fernand Léger, "The City," 1919
Léger was a champion of the "machine aesthetic." In "The City," he depicted the mechanical commotion of urban life, incorporating the effects of billboard advertisements, flashing lights, and noisy traffic (702).
• Incorporates the aesthetic of Synthetic Cubism
An early-20th-century Italian art movement that championed war as a cleansing agent and that celebrated the speed and dynamism of modern technology.
• Focused on motion in time and space in their effort to create paintings and sculptures that captured the dynamic quality of modern life.
Marcel Duchamp, "Nude Descending a Staircase," No. 2, 1912
The Armory Show of 1913 introduced European avant-garde art to America. Duchamp's figure in motion down a staircase in a time continuum reveals the artist's indebtedness to Cubism and Futurism (684).
• Prompted by a revulsion against the horror of World War I.
• Embraced political anarchy, the irrational, and the intuitive.
• A disdain for convention, often enlivened by humor or whimsy, is characteristic of the art the Dadaists produced.
Dada, Cabaret Voltaire
Jean Arp, "Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance," 1916-17
Carlo Carrà, Funeral of the Anarchist Galli, 1910-11
Marcel Duchamp, "Fountain," 1917
Pablo Picasso, "Guernica," 1937
Picasso in the 1930s
Picasso used Cubist techniques, especially the fragmentation of objects and dislocation of anatomical features, to expressive effect in this condemnation of the Nazi bombing of the Basque capital (716).
An art movement that grew directly out of the World War I experiences of a group of German artists who sought to show the horrors of the war and its effects.
• "New Objectivity"
• Depicted the horrors of war and explored the themes of death and transfiguration.
Max Beckmann, "Night," 1918-19
Beckmann's treatment of forms and space in "Night" matched his view of the brutality of early-20th-century society. Objects seem dislocated and contorted, and the space appears buckled and illogical (717).
Otto Dix, "Der Krieg (The War)," 1929-32
In this triptych recalling earlier altarpieces, Dix captured the panoramic devastation that war inflicts on the terrain and on humans. He depicted himself as a solder dragging a comrade to safety (718).
A successor to Dada, Surrealism incorporated the improvisational nature of its predecessor into its exploration of the ways to express in art the world of dreams and the unconscious.
• Natural Surrealists aimed for "concrete irrationality" in their naturalistic paintings of dreamlike scenes
• Biomorphic Surrealists experimented with automatism and employed abstract imagery
Max Ernst, Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale, 1924
In this early Surrealist painting with an intentionally ambiguous title, Ernst used traditional perspective to represent the setting, but the three sketchily rendered figures belong to a dream world (720).
Max Ernst, Europe after the Rain, 1940-42
frottage - A technique in which the artist rubs a crayon or another medium across a sheet of paper placed over a surface having a strong textural pattern.
Salvador Dali, Persistence of Memory, 1931
Dalí aimed to paint "images of concrete rationality." In this realistically rendered landscape featuring three "decaying" watches, he created a haunting allegory of empty space where time has ended (722).
A type of art formulated by Kazimir Malevich to convey his belief that the supreme reality in the world is pure feeling, which attaches to no object and thus calls for new, nonobjective forms in art - shapes not related to objects in the visible world.
An early-20th-century Russian art movement formulated by Naum Gabo, who built up his sculptures piece by piece in space instead of carving or modeling them. In this way the sculptor worked with "volume of mass" and "volume of space" as different materials.
• Used nonobjective forms to suggest the nature of space-time.
De Stijl (724)
Dutch, "the style." An early-20th-century art movement, founded by Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg, whose members promoted utopian ideals and developed a simplified geometric style.
• Employed simple geometric forms in their search for "pure plastic art."
Italian, "metaphysical painting." An early-20th-century Italian art movement led by Giorgio de Chirico, whose work conveys an eerie mood and visionary quality.
A school of painting and sculpture of the 1960s and 1970s that emphasized producing artworks based on scrupulous fidelity to optical fact. The Superrealist painters were also called Photorealists because many used photographs as sources for their imagery.
Piet Mondrian, "Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow," 1930.
Mondrian created numerous "pure plastic" paintings in which he locked primary colors into a grid of intersecting vertical and horizontal lines. By altering the grid patterns, he created dynamic tension (726).
Piet Mondrian, Composition in Line and Colour, 1913
Piet Mondrian, Red Tree, 1908
Abstract Expressionism (748)
The first major American avant-garde movement. The artists produced abstract paintings that expressed their state of mind and that they hoped would strike emotional chords in viewers. The movement developed along two lines: gestural abstraction and chromatic abstraction.
Jackson Pollock, "Number 1," 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950
Pollock's paintings emphasize the creative process. His mural-size canvases consist of rhythmic drips, splatters and dribbles of paint that envelop viewers, drawing them into a lacy spider web (748).
Photograph of Jackson Pollock at work
"Gestural abstraction" nicely describes Pollock's working technique. Using sticks or brushes, he flung, poured, and dripped paint onto a section of canvas he simply unrolled across his studio floor (749).
William de Kooning, "Woman I," 1950-52
Although rooted in figuration, including pictures of female models on advertising billboards, de Kooning's "Woman I" displays the energetic application of pigment typical of gestural abstraction (750).
Barnett Newman, Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1950-51
Newman's canvases consist of a single slightly modulated color field split by "zips" (narrow bands) running from one edge of the painting to the other, energizing the color field and giving it scale (750).
Mark Rothko, No. 14, 1960
Rothko's chromatic abstractionist paintings - consisting of hazy rectangles of pure color hovering in front of colored background - are compositionally simple but compelling visual experiences (751).
Pop Art (757)